An Unsupervised Cluster-Based VANET-Oriented Evolving Graph (CVoEG) Model and Associated Reliable Routing Scheme

An Unsupervised Cluster-Based VANET-Oriented Evolving Graph (CVoEG) Model and Associated Reliable Routing Scheme

ABSTRACT:

In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), communication links break more frequently due to the high-speed vehicles. In this paper, a novel cluster-based VANET oriented evolving graph (CVoEG) model is proposed by extending the existing VoEG model to improve the reliability of vehicular communications. Here, the link reliability is used as a criterion for cluster members (CMs) and cluster heads (CHs) selection. The proposed CVoEG model divides VANET nodes (vehicles) into an optimal number of clusters (ONC) by using Eigen gap heuristic. In a given cluster, a vehicle will be selected as a CH, if it has a maximum Eigen-centrality score. Based on the CVoEG model, a reliable routing scheme called CEG-RAODV is proposed to find the most reliable journey (MRJ) from source to destination. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the existing schemes in terms of reliability, reliable routing request (RRR), packet delivery ratio (PDR), end to end (E2E) delay, and throughput.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Zahid Khan , Student Member, IEEE, Pingzhi Fan, Fellow, IEEE, Sangsha Fang, Student Member, IEEE, and Fakhar Abass, Student Member, IEEE, “An Unsupervised Cluster-Based VANET-Oriented Evolving Graph (CVoEG) Model and Associated Reliable Routing Scheme”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 2019.

An efficient WSN based solution for border surveillance

An efficient WSN based solution for border surveillance

ABSTRACT:

Since a long time, the integrity of physical borders is seen as a challenging concern. Indeed, governments have to facilitate travelling and trade so that economies continue to grow while preventing the entry of dangerous entities. To this aim, several conventional techniques were enforced to secure borders in the recent past. However, due to the immensity of the area to be monitored, such solutions require an intensive human involvement and high maintenance costs. This advocated to use new technologies, such as Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), to reduce the costs and improve the efficiency of the border surveillance system. Although using and combining these technologies has been already addressed in different existing solutions, it still some key points to be considered like energy efficiency, load balancing and redundancy elimination. In this paper, we first propose a multilayer hybrid architecture based on cameras, scalar sensors, radars and UAVs to design a border surveillance system. Then, a detailed deployment strategy is discussed. Finally, an activation scheduling strategy based on load balancing and energy saving is addressed. The simulation results show that our solution could not only detect the intrusion in border areas, but also outperforms the other solutions by managing efficiently the network and extending its lifetime.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Mohamed Lamine Laouira, Abdelkrim Abdelli, Jalel Ben othman and Hyunbum Kim, “An efficient WSN based solution for border surveillance”, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Computing, 2019.

Primary User-aware Optimal Discovery Routing for Cognitive Radio Networks

Primary User-aware Optimal Discovery Routing for Cognitive Radio Networks

ABSTRACT:

Routing protocols in multi-hop cognitive radio networks (CRNs) can be classified into two main categories: local and global routing. Local routing protocols aim at decreasing the overhead of the routing process while exploring the route by choosing, in a greedy manner, one of the direct neighbors. On the contrary, global routing protocols choose the optimal route by exploring the whole network to the destination paying the flooding overhead cost. In this paper, we propose a primary useraware k-hop routing scheme where k is the discovery radius. This scheme can be plugged into any CRN routing protocol to adapt, in real time, to network dynamics like the number and activity of primary users. The aim of this scheme is to cover the gap between local and global routing protocols for CRNs. It is based on balancing the routing overhead and the route optimality, in terms of primary users avoidance, according to a user-defined utility function. We analytically derive the optimal discovery radius (k) that achieves this target. Evaluations on NS2 with a side-by-side comparison with traditional CRNs protocols show that our scheme can achieve the user-defined balance between the route optimality, which in turn reflected on throughput and packet delivery ratio, and the routing overhead in real time.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Arsany Guirguis‡, Student Member, IEEE, Fadel Digham¶, Member, IEEE, Karim Seddik⋆, Senior Member, IEEE, Mohamed Ibrahim†, Member, IEEE, Khaled A. Harras§, Senior Member, IEEE and Moustafa Youssef⋆⋆, Senior Member,, “Primary User-aware Optimal Discovery Routing for Cognitive Radio Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2019.

Robust Defense Scheme Against Selective Drop Attack in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Robust Defense Scheme Against Selective Drop Attack in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Performance and security are two critical functions of wireless ad-hoc networks (WANETs). Network security ensures the integrity, availability, and performance of WANETs. It helps to prevent critical service interruptions and increases economic productivity by keeping networks functioning properly. Since there is no centralized network management in WANETs, these networks are susceptible to packet drop attacks. In selective drop attack, the neighboring nodes are not loyal in forwarding the messages to the next node. It is critical to identify the illegitimate node, which overloads the host node and isolating them from the network is also a complicated task. In this paper, we present a resistive to selective drop attack (RSDA) scheme to provide effective security against selective drop attack. A lightweight RSDA protocol is proposed for detecting malicious nodes in the network under a particular drop attack. The RSDA protocol can be integrated with the many existing routing protocols for WANETs such as AODV and DSR. It accomplishes reliability in routing by disabling the link with the highest weight and authenticate the nodes using the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm. In the proposed methodology, the packet drop rate, jitter, and routing overhead at a different pause time are reduced to 9%, 0.11%, and 45%, respectively. The packet drop rate at varying mobility speed in the presence of one gray hole and two gray hole nodes are obtained as 13% and 14% in RSDA scheme.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

POONGODI1, MOHAMMED S. KHAN 2, (Member, IEEE), RIZWAN PATAN 1, AMIR H. GANDOMI 3, AND BALAMURUGAN BALUSAMY, “Robust Defense Scheme Against Selective Drop Attack in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Access, 2019.

V2V Routing in a VANET Based on the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model

V2V Routing in a VANET Based on the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model

ABSTRACT:

With the development of vehicle networks, the information transmission between vehicles is becoming increasingly important. Many applications, particularly regarding security, are based on communication between vehicles. These applications have strict requirements for factors such as the quality of communication between vehicles and the time delay. Many theoretical communication protocols ignore the presence of buildings or other obstacles that are present during practical use, especially in urban areas. These obstacles can cause a signal to fade or even block direct communication. Many vehicles are often parked at the roadside. Because of their location, these parked vehicles can be used as relays to effectively reduce the shadowing effect caused by obstacles and even solve communication problems. In this paper, we study the problem of parked-vehicle-assistant relay routing communication in vehicle ad hoc networks. We propose an efficient Parked Vehicle Assistant Relay Routing (PVARR) algorithm that is composed of four parts: a periodic Hello packet exchange mechanism, candidate relay list update, communication link quality evaluation and candidate relay list selection. Simulation results reveal obvious advantages for indexes such as the quality of communication, success rate, and time delay.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Gang Sun, Liangjun Song, Hongfang Yu, Victor Chang, Xiaojiang Du, Senior Member, IEEE, Mohsen Guizani, Fellow, IEEE, “V2V Routing in a VANET Based on the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2019.

Towards Fast and Reliable Multi-hop Routing in VANETs

Towards Fast and Reliable Multi-hop Routing in VANETs

ABSTRACT:

In Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), fast and reliable dissemination of safety messages is a key step toward improving the overall road safety. In a highly dynamic VANET environment, safety message dissemination in a multi-hop manner is a challenging and complex problem that has gained significant attention recently. Many protocols and schemes have been proposed to efficiently share safety messages among vehicles. However, most existing techniques do not perform well under real-world traffic conditions, or perform adequately only under very limited scenarios and traffic conditions. This research proposes a highly efficient and reliable multi-hop broadcasting protocol, Intelligent Forwarding Protocol (IFP), that exploits handshake-less communication, ACK Decoupling and an efficient collision resolution mechanism. In this research, IFP has been extensively studied and evaluated to establish its robustness and superiority over existing schemes. A key contribution of this paper is to present an in-depth analysis and optimization of IFP using theoretical modeling, thorough simulations, and extensive real-world experimentation. With IFP, the message propagation delay is significantly reduced and packet delivery ratio is drastically improved.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system :         UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Hamza Ijaz Abbasi ; Razvan Christian Voicu ; John Copeland ; yusun chang, “Towards Fast and Reliable Multi-hop Routing in VANETs”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing , 2019.

Privacy-Preserving Cloud-based Road Condition Monitoring with Source Authentication in VANETs

Privacy-Preserving Cloud-based Road Condition Monitoring with Source Authentication in VANETs

ABSTRACT:

The connected vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) and cloud computing technology allows entities in VANET to enjoy the advantageous storage and computing services offered by some cloud service provider. However, the advantages do not come free since their combination brings many new security and privacy requirements for VANET applications. In this article, we investigate the cloud-based road condition monitoring (RCoM) scenario, where the authority needs to monitor real-time road conditions with the help of a cloud server so that it could make sound responses to emergency cases timely. When some bad road condition is detected, e.g., some geologic hazard or accident happens, vehicles on site are able to report such information to a cloud server engaged by the authority. We focus on addressing three key issues in RCoM. First, the vehicles have to be authorized by some roadside unit before generating a road condition report in the domain and uploading it to the cloud server. Second, to guarantee the privacy against the cloud server, the road condition information should be reported in ciphertext format, which requires that the cloud server should be able to distinguish the reported data from different vehicles in ciphertext format for the same place without compromising their confidentiality. Third, the cloud server and authority should be able to validate the report source, i.e., to check whether the road conditions are reported by legitimate vehicles. To address these issues, we present an efficient RCoM scheme, analyze its efficiency theoretically, and demonstrate the practicality through experiments.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Yujue Wang, Yong Ding, Qianhong Wu,Yongzhuang Wei, Bo Qin, and Huiyong Wang, “Privacy-Preserving Cloud-based Road Condition Monitoring with Source Authentication in VANETs”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, 2019.

New Multi-Hop Clustering Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

New Multi-Hop Clustering Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

As a hierarchical network architecture, the cluster architecture can improve the routing performance greatly for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) by grouping the vehicle nodes. However, the existing clustering algorithms only consider the mobility of a vehicle when selecting the cluster head. The rapid mobility of vehicles makes the link between nodes less reliable in cluster. A slight change in the speed of cluster head nodes has a great influence on the cluster members and even causes the cluster head to switch frequently. These problems make the traditional clustering algorithms perform poorly in the stability and reliability of the VANET. A novel passive multi-hop clustering algorithm (PMC) is proposed to solve these problems in this paper. The PMC algorithm is based on the idea of a multihop clustering algorithm that ensures the coverage and stability of cluster. In the cluster head selection phase, a priority-based neighbor-following strategy is proposed to select the optimal neighbor nodes to join the same cluster. This strategy makes the inter-cluster nodes have high reliability and stability. By ensuring the stability of the cluster members and selecting the most stable node as the cluster head in the N-hop range, the stability of the clustering is greatly improved. In the cluster maintenance phase, by introducing the cluster merging mechanism, the reliability and robustness of the cluster are further improved. In order to validate the performance of the PMC algorithm, we do many detailed comparison experiments with the algorithms of N-HOP, VMaSC, and DMCNF in the NS2 environment.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool :         Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Degan Zhang , Member, IEEE, Hui Ge, Member, IEEE, Ting Zhang, Member, IEEE, Yu-Ya Cui, Member, IEEE, Xiaohuan Liu, Member, IEEE, and Guoqiang Mao, Fellow, IEEE, “New Multi-Hop Clustering Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 2019.

Kalman Prediction-Based Neighbor Discovery and Its Effect on Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Kalman Prediction-Based Neighbor Discovery and Its Effect on Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Efficient neighbor discovery in vehicular ad hoc networks is crucial to a number of applications such as driving safety and data transmission. The main challenge is the high mobility of vehicles. In this paper, we proposed a new algorithm for quickly discovering neighbor node in such a dynamic environment. The proposed rapid discovery algorithm is based on a novel mobility prediction model using Kalman filter theory, where each vehicular node has a prediction model to predict its own and its neighbors’ mobility. This is achieved by considering the nodes’ temporal and spatial movement features. The prediction algorithm is reinforced with threshold triggered location broadcast messages, which will update the prediction model parameters, and improve the efficiency of the neighbor discovery algorithm. Through extensive simulations, the accuracy, robustness, and efficiency properties of our proposed algorithm are demonstrated. Compared with other methods of neighbor discovery, which are frequently used in HP-AODV, ARH, and ROMSG, the proposed algorithm needs the least overheads and can reach the lowest neighbor error rate while improving the accuracy rate of neighbor discovery. In general, the comparative analysis of different neighbor discovery methods in routing protocol is obtained, which shows that the proposed solution performs better than HP-AODV, ARH, and ROMSG.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Chunfeng Liu , Gang Zhang, Weisi Guo , and Ran He, “Kalman Prediction-Based Neighbor Discovery and Its Effect on Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION, 2019.

Efficient Conditional Anonymity With Message Integrity and Authentication in a Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

Efficient Conditional Anonymity With Message Integrity and Authentication in a Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

ABSTRACT:

Vehicles in a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) broadcast beacons giving safety-related and traffic information. In an open-access environment, this means that the VANET is susceptible to security and privacy issues. In this paper, we propose a new pseudo-identity-based scheme for conditional anonymity with integrity and authentication in a VANET. The proposed scheme uses a pseudonym in the joining process with the road-side unit (RSU) to protect the real identity even from the RSU, in case it is compromised. All previous identity-based schemes have been prone to insider attackers, and have not met the revocation process. Our scheme resolves these drawbacks as the vehicle signs the beacon with a signature obtained from the RSU. Our scheme satisfies the requirements for security and privacy, and especially the requirements for message integrity and authentication, privacy preservation, non-repudiation, traceability, and revocation. In addition, it provides conditional anonymity to guarantee the protection of an honest vehicle’s real identity, unless malicious activities are detected. It is also resistant to common attacks such as modification, replay, impersonation, and man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. Although the numerous existing schemes have used a bilinear pairing operation, our scheme does not depend on this due to the complex operations involved, which cause significant computation overhead. Furthermore, it does not have a certification revocation list, giving rise to significant costs due to storage and inefficient communication. Our analysis demonstrates that our scheme can satisfy the security and privacy requirements of a VANET more effectively than previous schemes. We also compare our scheme with the recently proposed schemes in terms of communication and computation and demonstrate its cost-efficiency and appropriateness in working with the VANET. Meanwhile, the computation costs of the beacon signing and verification in our scheme are reduced by 49.9% and 33.3%, respectively

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : UBUNTU/Windows XP/7
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

MURTADHA A. ALAZZAWI, HONGWEI LU, ALI A. YASSIN, AND KAI CHEN, “Efficient Conditional Anonymity With Message Integrity and Authentication in a Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network”, IEEE Access, 2019.