Cooperative Communications with Wireless Energy Harvesting over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

Cooperative Communications with Wireless Energy Harvesting over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

ABSTRACT:

In this paper, a dual-hop decode-to-forward cooperative system is considered where multiple relays with finite energy storage and can harvest energy from the destination. In our analysis, the relays are spatially randomly located with invoking stochastic geometry. In an effort to improve spectral efficiency, an optimal source-relay link (OSRL) scheme is employed. Assuming Nakagami-m fading, two different scenarios are considered: 1) the single-antenna source with perfect channel state information (CSI); and 2) the multiple-antenna source with transmit antenna selection and imperfect CSI. In both scenarios, the destination node is equipped with a single transmit antenna to forward power via frequency radio signal to the relay candidates. For improving the system performance, multiple antennas at the destination are considered to process the multiple copies of the received signal from the best relay. For characterizing the performance of the proposed scenarios, exact closed-form analytical expressions for the outage probability are derived. To obtain further insights, we carry out diversity gain analysis by adopting asymptotic relative diversity. We also derive the exact closed-form analytical expression for the system throughput. Finally, simulation results are presented to corroborate the proposed analysis and to show that: i) The system performance is improved by enlarging the area of the circle and the density of the relays. ii) The energy storage size has impacts on the performance of considered networks, which determines the maximal transmit power at relays.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. Ding. Et. All, the OP of a cooperative network with multiple source destination pairs and one EH relay was characterized by taking the spatial randomness of user locations into consideration. Assuming spatial randomness of relays in SWIPT systems, the work in “Wireless information and power transfer in cooperative networks with spatially random relays” analyzed the system outage performance, in which different relay selection techniques were analyzed.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

Most of the existing literature laid a solid foundation for the role of cooperative SWIPT in Rayleigh fading, and the impact of cooperative SWIPT in Nakagami-m fading has not been well understood

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In this paper we analyze the outage performance of a cooperative system with spatially random wireless powered DF relays and finite energy storage over Nakagami-m fading channels, where the destination is equipped with multiple antennas and adopt maximal ratio combining (MRC) scheme to process multiple received signals.

The OSRL Process Assuming Perfect CSI: We consider a scenario where all relays are equipped with multiple antennas and adopt MRC scheme, while the source is a single-antenna device.

Compared to existing which a single antenna was considered at the relay nodes, it is of great significance of identifying the effect of multiple antennas and MRC scheme, which can improve the system performance in presence of EH.

Transmit Antenna Selection with Imperfect CSI: We consider a source equipped with multiple antennas and employing TAS scheme, while the spatially random relays are single-antenna-devices. For the TAS process, imperfect CSI is assumed.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Nakagami-m fading channel can reduce to multiple types of channel with the different parameter settings

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Jia Ye, Hongjiang Lei, Member, IEEE, Yuanwei Liu, Member, IEEE, Gaofeng Pan, Member, IEEE, Daniel Benevides da Costa, Senior Member, IEEE, Qiang Ni, Senior Member, IEEE, and Zhiguo Ding, Senior Member, IEEE, “Cooperative Communications with Wireless Energy Harvesting over Nakagami-m Fading Channels”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2017.

Dynamic Resource Allocationfor Immediate and Advance Reservationin Space-Division-Multiplexing-BasedElastic Optical Networks

Dynamic Resource Allocationfor Immediate and Advance Reservationin Space-Division-Multiplexing-BasedElastic Optical Networks

Dynamic Resource Allocationfor Immediate and Advance Reservationin Space-Division-Multiplexing-BasedElastic Optical Networks

 

ABSTRACT:

Numerous studies have investigated elasticoptical networks (EONs) with the aim of expanding thetransmission capacities of core networks. To achieve thisgoal, it is necessary to solve the spectrum resource wastageproblem caused by spectrum fragmentation. Moreover, dueto the potentially high traffic demands in future networks,it is important to handle requests that need to be reservedimmediately (immediate reservation, IR) as well as thosethat can be reserved in advance (advance reservation,AR). In networks that support the coexistence of IR andAR requests, IR service degradation by AR requests is achallenging issue because AR requests tend to reservefuture resources, which causes a lack of current resourcesto meet IR requests. Therefore, we address the problem ofspectrum fragmentation and the service-level control of IRand AR requests by routing and spectrum allocation (RSA).First, we summarize related research into EONs and resource-allocation methods for IR and AR requests. Next,we propose a novel dynamic RSA method to reduce spectrumfragmentation and control the service level of IRand AR requests in terms of bandwidth blocking probability(BBP) in EONs considering the multiplexing effect ofspatial channels. Finally, we evaluate the proposed methodbased on computer simulations and our results demonstratethat the proposed method can improve the BBPfor the entire traffic flow by reducing spectrum fragmentation,as well as the service control of AR requests and IRrequests under various network conditions.

OBJECTIVE:

In networks that support the coexistence of IR and AR requests, IR service degradation by AR requests is a challenging issue because AR requests tend to reserve future resources, which causes a lack of current resources to meet IR requests. Therefore, we address the problem of spectrum fragmentation and the service-level control of IR and AR requests by routing and spectrum allocation (RSA). First, we summarize related research into EONs and resource- allocation methods for IR and AR requests. Next, we propose a novel dynamic RSA method to reduce spectrum fragmentation and control the service level of IR and AR requests in terms of bandwidth blocking probability (BBP) in EONs considering the multiplexing effect of spatial channels.

INTRODUCTION:

I n most studies of optical networks, various technologies have been researched intensively to determine ways of coping with exponential increases in network traffic. The elastic optical network (EON) was introduced by Jinno et al. as a promising technology to increase the transmission capacity of optical networks because it can flexibly exploit spectrum resources by selecting modulation formats based on both the requested bit rates and optical reach . This flexibility, based on fine-grained resource provisioning, allows EONs to use spectrum resources more efficiently than traditional rigid wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks. However, despite recent improvements in spectrum utilization by EONs, the future increases in traffic in backbone networks will soon exhaust the expanded

transmission capacity. Space-division multiplexing (SDM) technologies, includingmulti-fibers, -cores, and -modes, have been investigated extensively in an effort to accommodate more network traffic. At the network level, the routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) problem is the most important issue that affects SDM-based EONs, where the aimis to make full use of limited resources.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. N. Dharmaweera, J. Zhao, L. Yan, M. Karlsson, and E. Agrell, “Traffic-grooming- and multipath-routing-enabled impairment-aware elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 58–70, Feb. 2016. 
  • Introduced an ILP formulation to jointly employ traffic grooming and multipath routing considering a realistic physical-layer impairment model.
  1. Yan, E. Agrell, H. Wymeersch, and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Resource allocation for flexible-grid optical networks with nonlinear channel model,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. B101–B108, Nov. 2015..
  • An optimization problem was formulated for RSA to maximize the spectrum utilization and guarantee the quality of signals from the perspective of nonlinear interference described by a Gaussian noise model between channels sharing the same fiber links

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

We investigated the problem of IR service degradation in EONs that support both IR and AR requests. We proposed two methods to reduce spectrum fragmentation and ensure the service-level control of IR and AR requests. We introduced prioritized areas to reduce spectrum fragmentation by ordering spectrum resources in the frequency domain.In addition, we divided the prioritized areas into  IRdedicated and shareable sub-areas, with dynamic control of the border between the two sub-areas in order to control the BBP. We evaluated the proposed methods based on computer simulations.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

DESCRIPTION:

Concept of the Proposed Method

We propose a novel, dynamic RSA method for reducing spectrum fragmentation as well as controlling the service level of IR requests and AR requests in multi-core EONs. This method configures prioritized areas based on the required frequency slots to reduce spectrum fragmentation. Each prioritized area is divided into two sub-areas: one dedicated to IR requests (IR-dedicated sub-area) and another that is shareable for both IR and AR requests (shareable sub-area). IR-dedicated sub-areas maintain the spectrum resources for IR requests even if the reservations for AR requests increase. Note that we set not ARdedicated sub-areas but shareable sub-areas, because AR requests can be easily allocated compared with IR requests due to flexibility in the time domain. In addition, the border of the IR-dedicated and shareable sub-areas is moved dynamically to obtain the desired ratio for the BBPs of IR and AR requests. Each prioritized area and sub-area follows the same spectrum division in all the cores of the network at all times because this helps to satisfy the continuity constraints on a transmission route in RSA. This method is called AR-limited (AR-L).

We propose another RSA method that configures common areas in addition to prioritized areas to reduce spectrum fragmentation. This method is called AR-Lcommon (AR-L-C). In AR-L, if a prioritized area is fully occupied, overflowed requests are allocated in other prioritized areas. This generates spectrum fragmentation in other prioritized areas, and, subsequently, fragmentation occurs in the area. To cope with this situation, AR-L-C configures a common area in addition to prioritized areas in order to accommodate overflowed requests in prioritized areas. If there is a common area, spectrum fragmentation likely occurs not in prioritized areas but in the common area, which ensures resource alignment in prioritized areas.

ADVANTAGES:

  • Provide great improvements in terms of the transmission flexibility and capacity.
  • Two methods to reduce spectrum fragmentation and ensure the service-level control of IR and AR requests.
  • Prioritized areas to reduce spectrum fragmentation y ordering spectrum resources in the frequency domain.
  • The proposed methods btained improvements in terms of the BBP, service-level ontrol of IR and AR requests, spectrum fragmentation, and R initial delay.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Seitaro Sugihara, Yusuke Hirota, ShoheiFujii, Hideki Tode, and Takashi Watanabe, “Dynamic Resource Allocationfor Immediate and Advance Reservationin Space-Division-Multiplexing-BasedElastic Optical Networks”, IEEE 2017.

User Association and Resource Allocation Optimization in LTE Cellular Networks

User Association and Resource Allocation Optimization in LTE Cellular Networks

User Association and Resource AllocationOptimization in LTE Cellular Networks

 

ABSTRACT:

As the demand for higher data rates is growingexponentially, homogeneous cellular networks have been facinglimitations when handling data traffic. These limitations arerelated to the available spectrum and the capacity of the network.Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets), composed of Macro Cells(MCs) and Small Cells (SCs), are seen as the key solution to improvespectral efficiency per unit area and to eliminate coverageholes. Due to the large imbalance in transmit power between MCsand SCs in HetNets, intelligent User Association (UA) is requiredto perform load balancing and to favor some SCs attractionagainst MCs. As Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular networksuse the same frequency sub-bands, User Equipments (UEs) mayexperience strong Inter-Cell Interference (ICI), especially at celledge. Therefore, there is a need to coordinate the ResourceAllocation (RA) among the cells and to minimize the ICI. In thispaper, we propose a generic algorithm to optimize user associationand resource allocation in LTE networks. Our solution, basedon game theory, permits to compute Cell Individual Offset (CIO)and a pattern of power transmission over frequency and timedomain for each cell. Simulation results show significant benefitsin the average throughput and also cell edge user throughput of40% and 55% gains respectively. Furthermore, we also obtain ameaningful improvement in energy efficiency.

 OBJECTIVE:

  • We formulate the user association and inter-cell interference problem using a potential game.
  • We provide a dynamic solution of user association and inter-cell interference coordination optimizing the Cell.
  • Individual Offset (CIO) and transmission power over time and frequency domains to maximize the network utility.
  • We provide an analytical investigation of the algorithm and comprehensive performance study. Simulation results have shown significant improvement in the user throughputs and also energy efficiency.

 INTRODUCTION:

Till the past few years, homogeneous LTE cellular networks,composed of identical Base Stations (BS) called macro BSs,managed to optimize the coverage and to handle the data trafficgenerated by the users. Generally, the deployment of thesemacro BSs is planned in a way that minimizes the overlapbetween the cells and at the same time guarantees a continuouscoverage for all users in the network. However, because ofthe exponential increase in the number of connected devices,

the rapid growth of data traffic and the demand for higherdata rates, LTE networks have been facing great difficultyto handle the data amount, especially in the most crowdedenvironments and at cell edges. These limitations are relatedto the available spectrum and network capacity bound. Network operatorsprefer to use the available licensed spectrum more efficiently.Another approach consists of enhancing the macro networklayer efficiency through some technology upgrades. For instance,the performance of these networks can be improvedthanks to advancement in the air interface, using multi-antennatechniques and implementing more efficient modulation andcoding schemes.

 EXISTING SYSTEM:

ETSI TS 36.300, “LTE Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (EUTRA)and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (EUTRAN);Overall Description; Stage 2,” Tech Spec. v10.11.0, Sep. 2013.

HetNets has beenproposed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)

  1. Sesia, I. Toufik, and M. Baker, LTE – The UMTS Long Term Evolution:

From Theory to Practice, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2011

In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access(OFDMA)  cellular network, the physical radio resourcesare partitioned into a time-frequency grid

 DRAWBACKS:

Although these techniques can be easily implemented, they cannot cope with changes in data traffic.

 PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Our proposed framework explores the idea of a central coordinatorthat gathers some information concerning the eNBsand the users in the system to determine optimal parameters.This idea is well aligned with the emerging technology fordesigning and managing mobile networks through SoftwareDefined Wireless Networking (SDWN). This new paradigm,simplifies network management by decoupling the controlplane and data plane and enabling operators to have a completecontrol over the network from a centralized point. Forexample, we design a SDWN controller based onOpen Daylight and we validate our framework with a suboptimization algorithm, handling CIO and ABS, deployed as a north bound (NB) application.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

User Association and Resource AllocationOptimization

DESCRIPTION:

In the following, we will describe the algorithm and itsoperation in performing user association and frequency/timeresource allocation via power patterns optimization for LTEcellular networks. This solution based on game theory is anextension to our work on coordinated scheduling via frequencyand power allocation optimization presented shows the design where a coordinator optimizes CIO values,virtually attaches the users to corresponding cells, performs adynamic resource distribution, virtually schedules the users inthe network, and computes a utility function. Then, it sends theoptimal parameters (power allocation patterns and CIO values)to each cell. The CIO values are added to RSRP measurementsand this impacts the user association and handover decision.

Then, each local eNB scheduler allocates its provided RBsaccording to its scheduling policy and uses the power settingsdetermined from the optimizer.

ADVANTAGES:

  • Useful for other resource allocation optimization problems and different system criteria.
  • Achieves more than 50% gain in cell edge throughput and also substantialenhancement in the average throughput and energy efficiency.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Nessrine Trabelsi, Chung Shue Chen, Rachid El Azouzi, Laurent Roullet, andEitan Altman, “User Association and Resource AllocationOptimization in LTE Cellular Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, 2017.

Training Sequence Design for Efficient Channel Estimation in MIMO-FBMC Systems

Training Sequence Design for Efficient Channel Estimation in MIMO-FBMC Systems

Training Sequence Design for Efficient ChannelEstimation in MIMO-FBMC Systems

 

ABSTRACT:

This paper is focused on training sequence design forefficient channel estimation in multiple-input multiple-output filterbankmulticarrier (MIMO-FBMC) communications using offsetquadrature amplitude modulation (OQAM). MIMO-FBMCis a promising technique to achieve high spectrum efficiency aswell as strong robustness against dispersive channels due to itsfeature of time-frequency localization. A salient drawback ofFBMC/OQAM signals is that only real-field orthogonality canbe kept, leading to the intrinsic imaginary interference beinga barrier for high-performance channel estimations. Also, conventionalchannel estimations in MIMO-FBMC systems mostlysuffer from high training overhead especially for large number oftransmit antennas. Motivated by these problems, in this paper, wepropose a new class of training sequences which are formed byconcatenation of two identical zero-correlation zone sequenceswhose auto- and cross- correlations are zero within a timeshiftwindow around the in-phase position. Since only realvaluedsymbols can be transmitted in MIMO-FBMC systems,we propose “complex training sequence decomposition (CTSD)”to facilitate the reconstruction of the complex-field orthogonalityof MIMO-FBMC signals. Our simulations validate that theproposed CTSD is an efficient channel estimation approach forpractical preamble-based MIMO-FBMC systems.

 OBJECTIVE:

A novel preamble design approach based on complex training sequences decomposition (CTSD) to facilitate the reconstruction of complex-field orthogonality in MIMO-FBMC systems. We propose to cascade two identical ZCZ sequences in the time domain forming preambles with non-zero values in odd or even subcarriers only (in the frequency domain). By doing so, ICI can be mostly self-cancelled as it is mainly from the neighboring subcarriers. Nevertheless, these

newly designed training sequences, which are complexvalued in the frequency domain, cannot be directly applied to MIMO-FBMC systems because only real-valued transmitted symbols are allowed.

INTRODUCTION:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is anefficient multicarrier modulation scheme which is resilientto the effect of multipath fading channels. Although all theOFDM subcarriers are modulated by waveforms that arelimited in the time-domain, in practice, there is unavoidablepower leakage in the frequency-domain and because of this,the guard band has to be placed so as to minimize adjacentchannel interference to other coexisting wireless systems  Furthermore, OFDM’s robustness against multipath propagationrelies on the insertion of cyclic prefix (CP) which is a lossof spectrum efficiency.

As an alternative modulation scheme to CP-OFDMsystems, this paper focuses on the filterbank multicarrier(FBMC) systems employing offset quadrature amplitude

modulation (OQAM) without inserting CP, called FBMC/OQAM . For ease of presentation, from nowon, we use FBMC to denote FBMC/OQAM. The subcarriersin an FBMC system are modulated with staggered OQAMsymbols.

 EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. Du, “Pulse shape adaptation and channel estimation in generalizedfrequency division multiplexing systems,” School Elect. Eng., Licentiatethesis, Roy. Inst. Technol., Stockholm, Sweden, Dec. 2008.
  • Based on the assumption of low frequency selectivity, interference approximation method (IAM) which is capable of computing an approximation of the interference from neighboring symbols.
  1. Hu, G. Wu, T. Li, Y. Xiao, and S. Li, “Preamble design with ICIcancellation for channel estimation in OFDM/OQAM system,” IEICETrans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 1, pp. 211fi214, Jan. 2010.
  • Observing ICI mainly from the nearest subcarriers, another ICM was developed by constructing preambles with only odd- (or even-) indexed subcarriers.

 DRAWBACKS:

  • Complexvalued in the frequency domain, cannot be directly applied toMIMO-FBMC systems.
  • Only real-valued transmitted symbols are allowed.

 PROPOSED SYSTEM:

in this paper, we proposea new class of training sequences, which are formed by concatenation of two identical zero-correlationzone sequences whose auto-correlation and cross correlation are zero within a time-shift window around the

in-phase position. Since only real-valued symbols can be transmitted in MIMO-FBMC systems, we propose“complex training sequence decomposition (CTSD)” to facilitate the reconstruction of the complex-fieldorthogonality of MIMO-FBMC signals. Our simulations validate that the proposed CTSD is an efficientchannel estimation approach for practical preamble-based MIMO-FBMC systems.

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Training Sequence Design for Efficient ChannelEstimation

 DESCRIPTION:

FBMC SYSTEM MODEL

As shown in Fig. 1, an equivalent FBMC baseband modelwith M subcarriers is considered, in which the subcarrierspacing is 1=T , with T being the complex symbol interval.The transmitted symbol am;n is real-valued with frequencyindex m and time index n, and T =2 is the interval of realvaluedsymbols. am;n and am;2nC1 are obtained by takingthe real and imaginary parts of complex-valued symbol fromquadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation.2 g .l/is the employed symmetrical real-valued prototype filterimpulse response with total energy of one and with lengthof Lg.

PROBLEM FORMULATION

Let [h(0); h(1); _ _ _ ; h(Lh 􀀀 1)]T be the discrete impulseresponse of a multipath fading channel, where Lh denotesthe maximum channel delay. According to (1), the basebandreceived signal therefore can be written as

where r(l) denotes the complex additive white Gaussian noisewith zero mean .

 ADVANTAGES:

  • Efficient channel estimation in MIMO-FBMC systems.
  • Transmit them separately over two FBMC symbols only.
  • This saves huge amount of precious time-frequency resources as the resultant training overhead does not depend the number of transmit antennas.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Su Hu, Zilong Liu, Yong Liang Guan, Chuanxue Jin, Yixuan Huang, Jen-Ming Wu, “Training Sequence Design for Efficient ChannelEstimation in MIMO-FBMC Systems”, IEEE Access, 2017.

 

The Error Propagation Analysis of the Received Signal Strength-Based Simultaneous Localization and Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

The Error Propagation Analysis of the Received Signal Strength-Based Simultaneous Localization and Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

The Error Propagation Analysis of the ReceivedSignal Strength-Based Simultaneous Localizationand Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

 

ABSTRACT:

Simultaneous localization and tracking (SLAT) inwireless sensor networks (WSNs) involves tracking the mobiletarget while calibrating the nearby sensor node locations. In practice,localization error propagation (EP) phenomenon will arise,due to the existence of the latest tracking error, target mobility,measurement error, and reference node location errors. In thiscase, the SLAT performance limits are crucial for the SLATalgorithm design and WSN deployment, and the study of localizationEP principle is desirable. In this paper, we focus on theEP issues for the received signal strength-based SLAT scheme,where the measurement accuracy is assumed to be spatialtemporal-domain doubly random due to the target mobility,environment dynamics, and different surroundings at differentreference nodes. First, the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB)is derived to unveil both the target tracking EP and the nodelocation calibration EP. In both cases, the EP principles turn outto be in a consistent form of the Ohm’s Law in circuit theory.Second, the asymptotic CRLB analysis is then presented to revealthat both EP principles scale with the inverse of sensor nodedensity. Meanwhile, it is shown that, the tracking and calibrationaccuracy only depends on the expectation of the measurementprecision. Third, the convergence conditions, the convergenceproperties, and the balance state of the target tracking EPand the location calibration EP are examined to shed light onthe EP characteristics of the SLAT scheme Finally, numericalsimulations are presented to corroborate the EP analysis.

 OBJECTIVE:

  • The EP principles of mobile target tracking and sensor location calibration in the SLAT issue are revealed, which turn out to resemble the Ohm’s Law in circuit theory. The obtained EP principles can be readily extended to linear Gaussian and nonlinear non-Gaussian filtering problems.
  • The convergence conditions and the properties of tracking and calibration EP behaviors are studied to shed lights on the localization information exchange for the mobile target prediction, tracking and the reference node location calibration.
  • The asymptotic performance limits are derived to reveal the impact of those dependent factors like reference node density, reference node location errors, target transition model and measurement accuracy on the SLAT performance, which is important for practical algorithm development and network design.

INTRODUCTION:

 SIMULTANEOUS localization and tracking (SLAT) of amobile target has attracted tremendous interests with therapid advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) ,e.g., the location-based services , warehousing management, location-aware security , location-based network routing , and shopping mall navigation.

The SLAT problem is to track the mobile target location(referred to as “tracking” hereafter) while calibrating thelocations of network nodes around (referred to as “calibration”hereafter). In principle, the mobile target tracking can beconsidered as the localization cooperation in the temporaldomain, while the sensor node location (and the cooperative network localization as well) can be regarded asthe localization cooperation in the spatial-domain . It ishighly desirable to study the performance limits of the SLATscheme and its error propagation (EP) behaviours for bothalgorithm design and wireless sensor network deployment.The EP phenomenon arises from the uncertainties (e.g., theprevious mobile tracking error, target mobility, measurementerror and reference node location errors) propagating withinthe target tracking and the sensor node location calibration inthe SLAT process.

 EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. Haeberlen, E. Flannery, A. M. Ladd, A. Rudys, D. S. Wallach andL. E. Kavraki, “Practical Robust Localization over Large-Sclae 802.11Wireless Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2004.
  • The EP issue is studied for the SLAT scheme in wireless sensor networks based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, due to its compatibility to the communication infrastructure
  1. Wymeersch, J. Lien, and M. Z. Win, “Cooperative localization inwireless networks.” Proceedings of the IEEE 97.2 (2009): 427-450.
  • The RSS measurement is a promising choice in closed indoor environments (g., shopping mall or underground parking) where the global positioning system (GPS) signal is unavailable.

DRAWBACKS:

  • Highly desirable to study the performance limits of the SLAT.
  • EP phenomenon arises from the uncertainties (g., the previous mobile tracking error, target mobility, measurement error and reference node location errors).

 PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In this paper, the error propagation is investigated for bothmobile target tracking and sensor node location calibration ofthe SLAT scheme in WSNs.The spatial-temporal-domain random measurements owingto different levels of shadow fading, device orientation, strengths of thermal noises, surrounding backgrounds, targetmobility and dynamic environments (such as the shoppingmall crowded with moving people) have been taken intoconsideration in the EP analysis to reveal their impact on theSLAT performance.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

The Error Propagation Analysis of the ReceivedSignal

 DESCRIPTION:

Network Model

The WSN under study is depicted in Fig. 1, where all sensornodes are assumed to be randomly and uniformly distributedinside a deployment area. Due to the inevitable errors in theinitial location acquisitions of sensor nodes, we assume that

all sensor node locations are inaccurate. Let si denote the true(but unknown) location of the ith sensor node, i = 1 : M,where M denotes the total number of sensor nodes inside thetracking area. A mobile target moves inside this area, whoselocation at time instant t is denoted by a D-dimensional vectorxt, which is unknown and to be tracked.

Once completing the target tracking, the SLAT scheme startsto calibrate those reference senor nodes with the assistance ofthe localized target and other sensor nodes nearby.3 For thelocation calibration of the objective node sit, we assume that,there are Nt 0 nearby sensor nodes available as referencenodes in addition to the mobile target. Let the index set ofreference cluster formed by these sensor nodes be denoted as

Let’s define a vector associated with reference sensor nodesof the objective node siIn addition, when Nt = 0, the SLAT problem under studyis simplified to the traditional case where only the localizedtarget helps calibrate the objective node.

 ADVANTAGES:

  • Temporal-spatial-domain localization cooperation in the SLAT scheme for WSNS.
  • The presented EP analysis framework can also provide an intuitive way to capture all dominate factors for both linear Gaussian filtering and nonlinear non-Gaussian filtering problem.
  • The asymptotic performance limits over dependent factors, such as shadow fading, target mobility, reference sensor node density and sensor node location errors are also revealed.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: 

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Bingpeng Zhou, Member, IEEE, Qingchun Chen, Senior Member, IEEE, and Pei Xiao, Senior Member, IEEE, “The Error Propagation Analysis of the ReceivedSignal Strength-Based Simultaneous Localizationand Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 63, NO. 6, JUNE 2017.

 

TDMA versus CSMA/CA for wireless multi-hop communications: a stochastic worst-case delay analysis

TDMA versus CSMA/CA for wireless multi-hop communications: a stochastic worst-case delay analysis

TDMA versus CSMA/CA for wireless multi-hopcommunications: a stochastic worst-case delayanalysis

 

ABSTRACT:

Wireless networks have become a very attractivesolution for soft real-time data transport in the industry. For suchtechnologies to carry real-time traffic, reliable bounds on end-toendcommunication delays have to be ascertained to warranta proper system behavior. As for legacy wired embedded andreal-time networks, two main wireless multiple access methodscan be leveraged: (i) time division multiple access (TDMA),which follows a time-triggered paradigm and (ii) Carrier SenseMultiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), whichfollows an event-triggered paradigm. This paper proposes ananalytical comparison of the time behavior of two representativeTDMA and CSMA/CA protocols in terms of worst-case end-toenddelay. This worst-case delay is expressed in a probabilistic manner because our analytical framework captures the versatilityof the wireless medium. Analytical delay bounds are obtainedfrom delay distributions, which are compared to fine-grained simulation results. Exhibited study cases show that TDMAcan offer smaller or larger worst-case bounds than CSMA/CAdepending on its settings.

 OBJECTIVE:

  • To look at the benefits of CSMA/CAsolutions for soft real-time networking and compared theirperformance to TDMA solutions.
  • Introduce network models and protocols related to both multiple access of TDMA and CSMA/CA.
  • Compare the performance of TDMA and CSMA/CA on twotopologies.

INTRODUCTION

Wireless multi-hop networks (i.e., ad hoc, sensor, meshnetworks) are currently being intensively investigated for realtime applications because of their appealing ease of deployment and scalability. Many industrial applicationsrequire delay guarantees in their networks: packets of criticalflows must arrive at their destination within a fixed delaybound. Guaranteeing hard real-time communications in wireless networks is difficult due to the unreliability of the wirelesschannel. However, it is possible to guarantee soft real-timerequirements with a dedicated protocol stack design. Suchnetworks can tolerate a really small probability for the endto-end delay of flows to exceed a fixed time limit.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. Fidler, “Wlc15-2: A network calculus approach to probabilisticquality of service analysis of fading channels,” in IEEE Globecom 2006, Nov 2006, pp. 1 6

     Applied probabilisticnetwork calculus to provide a quality of service aware
method that captures wireless fading channels.

  1. Despaux, Y. Q. Song, and A. Lahmadi, “Modelling and performance
    analysis of wireless sensor networks using process mining techniques:
    Contikimac use case,” in Proceedings of IEEE DCOSS 2014, May 2014,
    pp. 225–232.

Thatleverages the probabilistic framework of reliability calculus proposed.

 DRAWBACKS:

  • Delay distribution and worst-case bound are validated against extensive simulations.
  • There is still a need for a comprehensiveanalytical framework capable of calculating the worst-casedelay bounds of flows carried on a given wireless network.

 PROPOSED SYSTEM:

This paper proposes ananalytical comparison of the time behavior of two representativeTDMA and CSMA/CA protocols in terms of worst-case end-toend delay. This worst-case delay is expressed in a probabilisticmanner because our analytical framework captures the versatilityof the wireless medium. Analytical delay bounds are obtainedfrom delay distributions, which are compared to fine-grainedsimulation results. Exhibited study cases show that TDMAcan offer smaller or larger worst-case bounds than CSMA/CAdepending on its settings.

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

TDMA versus CSMA CA for wireless multi

DESCRIPTION:

      In this work, we investigate two different atomic topologies that are at the core of many deployment scenarios ofwireless multi-hop communications. We will concentrate firston a linear deployment scenario. Suchscenarios are topical for scenarios where coverage needs tobe extended in a specific direction. Linear topologies arefor instance deployed to extend coverage on demand using
swarms of drones over a stadium. The second 2-relay/2-flow topology has been investigated to capture the contentioneffect of a set of node carrying multiple flows.The linear topology is a basic multi-hop topology, where allpackets are forwarded from one source node S to a destinationnode D using relay nodes. In our case, we choose a topologywhere x nodes relay the frames from S to D. In
the results section, we will provide results for x equal to 3, 4or 5. The more relays are exploited, the higher the odds forthe transmission to fail. Typically, end-to-end communicationsexceeding four to five hops get more difficult to implementin practice. The second topology investigated is the 2-relay/2- flow topology. Here, the two relays have to forwardpackets that belong to two flows, simultaneously. The first flowis emitted by S1 going to D1 and the second flow is emittedby S2, going to D2. This situation is critical since the relayshave to listen to both flows and to re-emit them concurrently

ADVANTAGES:

  • A new method to calculate the delaydistribution of a basic TDMA protocol.

Derive the stochastic worst-case delay bound of TDMA for anytopology and flow pattern.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Qi Wang, Katia Jaffr`es-Runser, Member, IEEE, Yongjun Xu, Member, IEEE, Jean-Luc Scharbarg, Zhulin An andChristian Fraboul, “TDMA versus CSMA/CA for wireless multi-hopcommunications: a stochastic worst-case delayanalysis”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2017.

Subband Filtered Multi-carrier Systems for Multi-service Wireless Communications

Subband Filtered Multi-carrier Systems for Multi-service Wireless Communications

Subband Filtered Multi-carrier Systems forMulti-service Wireless Communications

 

ABSTRACT:

Flexibly supporting multiple services, each with different communication requirements and frame structure, hasbeen identified as one of the most significant and promisingcharacteristics of next generation and beyond wireless communicationsystems. However, integrating multiple frame structureswith different subcarrier spacing in one radio carrier mayresult in significant inter-service-band-interference (ISBI). In thispaper, a framework for multi-service (MS) systems is establishedbased on subband filtered multi-carrier system. The subbandfiltering implementations and both asynchronous and generalizedsynchronous (GS) MS subband filtered multi-carrier (SFMC)systems have been proposed. Based on the GS-MS-SFMC system,the system model with ISBI is derived and a number of propertieson ISBI are given. In addition, low-complexity ISBI cancelationalgorithms are proposed by precoding the information symbolsat the transmitter. For asynchronous MS-SFMC system in thepresence of transceiver imperfections including carrier frequencyoffset, timing offset and phase noise, a complete analyticalsystem model is established in terms of desired signal, intersymbol-interference, inter-carrier-interference, ISBI and noise.Thereafter, new channel equalization algorithms are proposedby considering the errors and imperfections. Numerical analysisshows that the analytical results match the simulation results,and the proposed ISBI cancelation and equalization algorithmscan significantly improve the system performance in comparisonwith the existing algorithms.

 OBJECTIVE:

  • To reduce OoB emission level for next generation communications.
  • Low-complexity baseband signal processing algorithms to precancel the ISBI by pre-coding the information symbols beforetransmission.
  • To investigate the impacts of transceiver imperfectionsincluding carrier frequency offset (CFO), timing offset (TO)and phase noise (PN) on the performance.

 INTRODUCTION:

The next generation wireless communication (5G and beyond) is required to support a greater density of users, higherdata throughput, ultra-high reliability and ultra-low latencycommunications to meet the vision of “everything everywhereand always connected” with “provision of perception of infinite capacity”. However, these multi-fold requirementsare generally driven by different type of services and use cases,resulting in different optimal radio frame structure design criteria. For example, the service for machine type communications(MTC) might require smaller subcarrier spacing (thus largersymbol duration) to support massive delay-tolerant devices. Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communications, on theother hand, have more stringent latency requirements, thus,symbol duration might be significantly reduced.

 EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. Zhang, M. Jia, L. Chen, J. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Filtered-OFDM – enablerfor flexible waveform in the 5th generation cellular networks,” in IEEEGlobecom, 2015, pp. 1–6.

One viable solution is to divide the system bandwidth into severalservice bands with each used for a different type of service.

5GNOW, “D3.2: 5G waveform candidate selection,” Tech. Rep., 2014

Subband filtered multi-carrier (SFMC) based systems including universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC).

 DRAWBACKS:

  • Different optimal radio frame structure design criteria.
  • Reduction in spectrum efficiency.
  • It comes at the expense.
  • Compromised accuracy and increased system complexity.

 PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In thispaper, a framework for multi-service (MS) systems is establishedbased on subband filtered multi-carrier system. The subbandfiltering implementations and both asynchronous and generalizedsynchronous (GS) MS subband filtered multi-carrier (SFMC)systems have been proposed. Based on the GS-MS-SFMC system,the system model with ISBI is derived and a number of propertieson ISBI are given. In addition, low-complexity ISBI cancelationalgorithms are proposed by precoding the information symbolsat the transmitter. For asynchronous MS-SFMC system in thepresence of transceiver imperfections including carrier frequencyoffset, timing offset and phase noise, a complete analytical system model is established in terms of desired signal, intersymbol-interference, inter-carrier interference, ISBI and noise.

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Subband Filtered Multi-carrier Systems forMulti

DESCRIPTION:

  • We first build a framework for MS-SFMC system and categorize the possible subband filtering implementations and synchronized systems in frequency and time domains, respectively.
  • Based on the GS system and one of the SFMC implementations, i.e, UFMC, and in the absence of transceiver imperfections and sufficient guard interval between symbols, we first establish a system model for MS-UFMC systems with arbitrary values of subcarrier spacing and GB.
  • In the presence of transceiver imperfections for asynchronous MS system, we derive an analytical expression for MS-UFMC system in terms of desired signal,
    inter-carrier interference (ICI), inter-symbol interference (ISI), ISBI and noise by considering CFO, TO, PN and insufficient ZP length between symbols. Based on the analytical framework, we propose channel equalization algorithms that can provide significant gain in terms of BER performance in comparison to OFDM and the stateof-the-art (SoTA) UFMC systems.

ADVANTAGES:

  • All of thederivations and propositions are also applicable to OFDM
    systems as a special case.
  • An analyticalsystem model was established to analyze the desired signal,
    ISI, ICI, ISBI and noise.
  • Channel equalizationalgorithms were proposed by considering the errors and imperfections based on the derived signal models.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Lei Zhang, Ayesha Ijaz, Pei Xiao, Atta Quddus and Rahim Tafazolli, “Subband Filtered Multi-carrier Systems forMulti-service Wireless Communications”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2017.

Spectral Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Optimization via Mode Selection for Spatial Modulation in MIMO Systems

Spectral Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Optimization via Mode Selection for Spatial Modulation in MIMO Systems

 

ABSTRACT:

In this work we consider the multiple-inputmultiple-output system employing spatial modulation based transmission in Rayleigh fading channels with known slow varying large-scale fading loss and channel correlations. Observing the system performance is affected by transmission mechanisms and configurations, we propose a framework enabling the selection of the transmission mode for the optimal spectral efficiency (SE) or energy efficiency (EE) while conforming to transmission and error rate requirements with low complexity. In the framework, a closed-form error rate approximation is proposed. It renders the formulated SE and EE-based selection problems solvable via naive exhaustive search method. Besides, we propose to reduce the complexity via using look-up tables. Computer simulations are provided to evaluate the framework.

OBJECTIVE:

  • To provide good trade-offs between SE and EE with different numbers of active RF chains, the link adaptive design involving different variants can provide benefits to the systems.
  • To select the best mode from via using the large-scale fading loss and channel correlations.
  • By the result of mode selection, the information bits are converted to the SM-based signal for transmission.

 INTRODUCTION:

Spatial modulation (SM) based transmission schemes in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems utilize both the signal and spatial constellations, i.e., both the conventional amplitude and phase modulation (APM) and the antenna indices, to convey information bits The distinct feature of SM-based MIMO enhances the utilization of spatial degrees of freedom (DoFs) with limited number of radio frequency(RF) chains, and renders the SM-based MIMO transceiver lower complexity and potentially higher energy efficiency (EE)as compared to the conventional MIMO.To improve the SM-based MIMO, adaptive designs have been investigated. Here we consider the link adaptive design in whch the system adaptively adopts the most suitable transmission scheme and configuration.

 EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. Stavridis, S. Sinanovic, M. Di Renzo, and H. Haas, ”Energy evaluation of spatial modulation at a multi-antenna base station,” in Proc. IEEE VTC-fall, Sept. 2013.

Error rate analysis for typical SM-MIMO in different fading channels,

  1. Bouida1, A. Ghrayeb1, and K. A. Qaraqe, ”Adaptive spatial modulation for spectrally-efficient MIMO systems,” in Proc. IEEE WCNC,Apr. 2014.

Maximize spectral efficiency (SE) with given symbol/bit error rate (SER/BER), were proposed via adapting modulation orders. As considering energy efficiency (EE)maximization, adaptive modulation designs in were proposed without involving circuit power consumption

 PROPOSED SYSTEM:

We propose the framework for selecting thebest transmission mode according to the large-scale fadingloss and spatial correlations in Rayleigh fading channels. Our goal is to pursue the optimization of two fundamental performance metrics: SE and EE. The framework considers SM-based schemes with different transmission rates, spacesignalconstellations, numbers of activated antennas, and withouttransmit diversity design. We first derive the simplifiedclosed-form approximation of the SER/BER applicable fordifferent modes. Then given a pre-determined candidate setof transmission modes, we propose the SE and EE basedselection optimization problems for selecting the mode withthe best SE and EE, respectively. Both optimization problemsare subject to certain error rate, transmission rate, and powerconstraints. By linking the error rate requirement to the transmitpower via the closed-form approximation, the proposed SEand EE optimization problems can be easily solvable by naïve exhaustive search with low complexity. Furthermore, sincethe costly metric computation of the closed-form expressioncan be replaced by the inexpensive table look-up operation,the complexity of the framework can be further reduced.

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 DESCRIPTION:

In this work, we consider the point-to-point MIMO systemequipped with Nt transmit antennas, Nr receive antennas, andseveral RF chains capable of being switched on/off. We adoptSM-based MIMO to convey information bits, and considerthe large-scale fading loss and channel spatial correlationsperfectly known at the transmitter. Given a pre-defined transmissionmode set  with size M, our goal is to select the bestmode from  via using the large-scale fading loss and channelcorrelations. By the result of mode selection, the informationbits are converted to the SM-based signal for transmission. Thereceiver employing the maximum likelihood (ML) detector is then adopted for detection

ADVANTAGES:

  • Replaces the error rate constraint with elegant closed-form expression, is the key to the framework
  • It is practical with the low complexity and by using merely the slowly varying channel statistics.

 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Ming-Chun Lee and Wei-Ho Chung, Member, IEEE, “Spectral Efficiency and Energy EfficiencyOptimization via Mode Selection for SpatialModulation in MIMO Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2017.

 

Spectral and Energy Efficiencies in Full-Duplex Wireless Information and Power Transfer

Spectral and Energy Efficiencies in Full-Duplex Wireless Information and Power Transfer

Spectral and Energy Efficiencies in Full-Duplex Wireless Information and Power Transfer

 

ABSTRACT:

A communication system is considered consisting of a full-duplex (FD) multiple-antenna base station (BS) and multiple single-antenna downlink users (DLUs) and single-antenna uplink users (ULUs), where the latter need to harvest energy for transmitting information to the BS. The communication isthus divided into two phases. In the first phase, the BS uses allavailable antennas for conveying information to DLUs and wireless energy to ULUs via information and energy beam forming,respectively. In the second phase, ULUs send their independent information to the BS using their harvested energy while theBS transmits the information to the DLUs. In the both phases,the communication is operated at the same time and over thesame frequency band. The aim is to maximize the sum rate andenergy efficiency under ULU achievable information throughput constraints by jointly designing beamformers and time allocation.The utility functions of interest are nonconcave and involved constraints are nonconvex, so these problems are computationally troublesome. To address them, path-following algorithms are proposed to arrive at least at local optima. The proposed algorithms iteratively improve the objectives with converge guaranteed.Simulation results demonstrate that they achieve fast convergencerate and outperform conventional solutions.

OBJECTIVE:

We propose a new model for WPCNs to optimize simultaneous uplink and downlink information transmission by exploring FD radio for the BS.

  • Assuming perfect channel state information (CSI), we first develop a path-following algorithm of low complexity for the computational solution of sum rate maximization (SRM). The obtained solutions are at least local optima as they satisfy the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions.
  • Numerical results show fast convergence of the proposed algorithm and greatly improve the system performance over the conventional approaches.
  • The energy efficiency maximization (EEM) problem is a difficult nonlinear fraction program since the objective is not a ratio of a concave and convex function.
  • The commonly-used Dinkelbach-type algorithms are not applicable.
  • We develop a novel path-following algorithm that only invokes one simple convex quadratic program at each iteration, which again converges at least to a local optimum.

 INTRODUCTION:

Radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) communication has emerged as a promising cost-effective technology for supplying power to users. Enabling wireless devices to harvest energy from RF signals, RF-EH communication is expected to fundamentally reshape the landscape of power supply in Internet-of-Things (IoT). Exploring RF EH communication allows one to transfer information and energy over the same RF channel. Various cooperative schemes with/without built-in batteries for energy storage in which multiple transceiver pairs communicate with each other via EH relays were studied. In this regard, transmit beam forming is used to focus information and/or RF energy at the desired users. An emerging trend is the development of wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs), which implement a downlink wireless energy transfer (DWET) followed by an uplink wireless information transmission (UWIT). A base station (BS) first transfers energy to the wireless powered users, who harvest the energy for transmitting their independent information to the BS. Time allocation for DWET and UWIT to optimize the sum information rate subject to per-user achievable information rate thresholds was considered.

 EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. Nguyen, L.-N. Tran, P. Pirinen, and M. Latva-aho, “Precoding for full duplex multiuser MIMO systems: Spectral and energy efficiency maximization,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 61, no. 16, pp. 4038– 4050, Aug. 2013.

FD multiple input multiple-output (MIMO) pre-coding was studied in the context of multi user MIMO (MU-MIMO) to improve the overall spectral efficiency of downlink and uplink channels

  1. Akbar, Y. Deng, A. Nallanathan, M. Elkashlan, and A.-H. Aghvami,“Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer in K-tier heterogeneous cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15,no. 8, pp. 5804–5817, Aug. 2016.

Considered a joint downlink (DL) and uplink(UL) transmission of K-tier heterogeneous cellular networks with downlink simultaneous wireless information and power transfer, where outage probability and ergodic capacity of both DL and UL have been derived.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In this paper, a MIMO FD BS in WPCNs has been studied in which the users in the UL channel are designed to harvest energy from the BS before transmitting their information. Tocombat the degree-of-freedom bottleneck, a cooperative transmit strategy between the DL and UL transmission has been proposed. We have developed path-following algorithms for jointly designing the energy harvesting time and beam forming to maximize the sum rate and energy efficiency of the FD system. The proposed algorithms are guaranteed to converge monotonically to at least local optima of the non convex design problems.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Spectral and Energy Efficiencies in Full

DESCRIPTION:

We consider a WPCN as illustrated which consists of a BS, K DLUs and L ULUs. The BS is equipped with M receive and N transmit antennas, while all the users are equipped with a single antenna. Denote by D , {D1;D2; _ _ _ ;DK} and U , {U1;U2; _ _ _ ;UL} the sets of DLUs and ULUs, respectively. All channels are assumed to follow independent quasi-static flat fading, i.e., remaining constant during a communication time block, denoted by T, but change independently from one block to another. Without loss of generality, the time block T is set as all ULUs U` 2 U are assumed to harvest energy from the RF signal transmitted by the BS and then transmit information to BS as illustrated.

 ADVANTAGES:

  • Numerical results have been presented to show the fast convergence rate and demonstrate the advantages of our proposed algorithms.
  • Efficacy of the proposed cooperative transmission in enhancing system performance, as well as the necessity of optimizing energy beam forming in order to provide significant performance improvement compared to the existing solutions.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Van-Dinh Nguyen, Student Member, IEEE, Trung Q. Duong, Senior Member, IEEE, Hoang Duong Tuan,Oh-Soon Shin, Member, IEEE, and H. Vincent Poor Fellow, IEEE, “Spectral and Energy Efficiencies in Full-Duplex Wireless Information and Power Transfer”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2017.

Resource Allocation Strategy for Multi-user Cognitive Radio Systems: Location-Aware Spectrum Access

Resource Allocation Strategy for Multi-user Cognitive Radio Systems: Location-Aware Spectrum Access

 

ABSTRACT:

This paper considers a new power strategy and channel allocation optimization for secondary users (SUs) in an OFDM based cognitive radio network where the coverage area of the secondary network is divided into an Overlay Region and a Hybrid Region. SUs in the Overlay Region can adopt the overlay spectrum access method while SUs in the Hybrid Region may adopt underlay or sensing free spectrum access.We first present a general resource allocation framework that optimizes the power and channel allocation to secondary users who adopt these different spectrum access methods depending on their locations. In order to enable sensing free spectrum access, we then propose a new algorithm that incorporates an interference violation test to decide the parameters in the general framework. The proposed scheme intelligently utilizes frequency and space opportunities, avoids unnecessary spectrum sensing and minimizes the overall power consumption while maintaining the quality of service of a primary system. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of energy efficiency and show that enhanced performance can be obtained by utilizing spatial opportunities.

OBJECTIVE:

  • To extend to consider multiple SUs spread out in a secondary network and devises a general problem formulation that incorporates all the spectrum access methods and allows different modes for distinctly located SUs by setting the parameters in this formulation.
  • To achieve an energy efficient design, we minimize the total power consumption with a given date rate requirement in this problem formulation.
  • The second contribution of this paper is to propose a novel interference violation test to find out the channels that do not need to be sensed and further avoid unnecessary spectrum sensing to improve energy efficiency.

INTRODUCTION:

Access or share the underused spectrum of primary licensed networks, cognitive radio (CR) has been distinguished as a promising technology to improve the spectrum utilization efficiency and meet the stringent requirements in future wireless networks. Depending on the spectrum policies laid by a primary system, the dynamic spectrum access mechanism can be generally classified as overlay spectrum access and underlay spectrum access. In an overlay-based system, SUs access the spectrum only when it is not being used by the primary system while in an underlay-based system, SUs coexist with the primary system and transmit with power constraints to avoid unacceptable interference and guarantee the quality of service(QoS) of the primary system.Recently, power and channel allocation in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based CR systems have received a great deal of attention. Different spectrum access methods require distinct resource allocation strategies. For the overlay-based systems, hard-decision resource resource allocation (HDRA) and probabilistic resource allocation(PRA) taking into account spectrum sensing errors are studied and references therein. For the underlay-based system, interference management among SUs and primary users (PUs) play a key role in the resource allocation.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  1. Zou, H. Xiong, D. Wang, and C. Chen, “Optimal power allocation for hybrid overlay/underlay spectrum sharing in multiband cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 3956–3965,Oct. 2013.

The authors employ a hybrid overlay/underlay spectrum sharing scheme for a distributed CR network, allowing an SU to adapt its way of accessing the licensed spectrum according to the status of the channel

  1. Mao, G. Xie, J. Gao, and Y. Liu, “Energy efficiency optimization forOFDM-based cognitive radio systems: a water-filling factor aided search method,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 99, no. 99, pp. 534–539,Oct. 2013.

The energy-efficient power allocation problem of OFDM-based CR systems is studied

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

This paper has elaborated the role of adaptive resource allocation in CR networks in terms of energy efficiency since energy-efficiency oriented design is more and more important for wireless communications. Based on the existing research on resource allocation for OFDM-based CR networks, this paper proposes an adaptive hybrid resource allocation strategy to enhance the energy efficiency by utilizing spectrum and spatial opportunities. A novel adaptive power and channel allocation algorithm has been proposed to fulfill the proposed resource allocation strategy based on the interference violation test.

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

DESCRIPTION:

The circle to the left represents the service range of the primary system and the shaded circle to the right represents that of the CR system. The intersection of the two circles constructs what we call the Overlay Region. The remaining part of the CR service region is called the Hybrid Region.To ensure the efficacy of the scheme proposed in this paper,we assume that for each SU in the Hybrid Region, there is a corresponding worst case PU location (located at the intersection of the PBS service region boundary and the line between the PBS and the SU itself), which is the closest to this SU. We believe that if the worst case PU (regardless whether this PU is actually present or not) is protected, althe PUs within the coverage area of the primary system are also protected from the transmission of the corresponding SU in long term.

ADVANTAGES:

Spatial information enhances the energy efficiency and avoid sun necessary spectrum sensing.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : MATLAB
  • Tool : MATLAB R2013A

REFERENCE:

Tong Xue, Student Member, IEEE, Xiaodai Dong, Senior Member, IEEE* and Yi Shi, Member, IEEE, “Resource Allocation Strategy for Multi-userCognitive Radio Systems: Location-AwareSpectrum Access”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2017.