MoZo: A Moving Zone Based Routing Protocol Using Pure V2V Communication in VANETs

MoZo: A Moving Zone Based Routing Protocol Using Pure V2V Communication in VANETs


Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are an emerging field, whereby vehicle-to-vehicle communications can enable many new applications such as safety and entertainment services. Most VANET applications are enabled by different routing protocols. The design of such routing protocols, however, is quite challenging due to the dynamic nature of nodes (vehicles) in VANETs. To exploit the unique characteristics of VANET nodes, we design a moving-zone based architecture in which vehicles collaborate with one another to form dynamic moving zones so as to facilitate information dissemination. We propose a novel approach that introduces moving object modeling and indexing techniques from the theory of large moving object databases into the design of VANET routing protocols. The results of extensive simulation studies carried out on real road maps demonstrate the superiority of our approach compared with both clustering and non-clustering based routing protocols.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):


  • The CBDRP (Clustering-Based Directional Routing Protocol) first divides each road into equal-length segments. Vehicles in the same road segment and moving at the same direction are grouped in one cluster, and the vehicle closest to the center of the cluster is the cluster head.
  • To route a message, the source sends the message to its cluster head, and the cluster head establishes the routing path first and then forwards the message along the path. The BRAVE (Beacon-less Routing Algorithm for Vehicular Environments) approach adopts an optimistic routing approach to reduce the message overhead in traditional broadcasting approaches.
  • In BRAVE, a forwarding vehicle which has a message to send out will broadcast the message to its 1-hop neighbors.


  • The clustersare formed based on fixed partitioning of roads, withoutconsidering the similarity of movement among vehicles.
  • Incurs heavy communication overhead.
  • The broken path problem is more severewhen the distance between the sender and the receiver is farfrom each other.
  • Introduces extra communication cost but also delays the transmission of messages.


  • We propose a comprehensive routing solution that delivers messages in VANETs via a self-organized moving-zone based architecture formed using pure vehicle-to-vehicle communication.Our approach integrates moving object modeling and indexing techniques to vehicle management.
  • Moving object techniques allow us to provide a realistic cluster-based representation, in that vehicles are grouped together according to their actual moving patterns. Further, the use of indexes allow for efficient movement information storage and management.


  • This isthe first study that applies moving object techniques tovehicular networks. The moving object modeling and indexing techniques have been leveraged in various tasksincluding zone construction and maintenance as well asinformation dissemination.
  • The proposed approach greatlyreduces communication overhead and improves messagedelivery rate.




  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB


  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)


Dan Lin, Jian Kang, Anna Squicciarini, Yingjie Wu, Sashi Gurung, and Ozan Tonguz, “MoZo: A Moving Zone Based Routing ProtocolUsing Pure V2V Communication in VANETs”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2017.

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