Enhancing Quality of Service Conditions Using a Cross-Layer Paradigm for Ad-hoc Vehicular Communication

Enhancing Quality of Service Conditions Using a Cross-Layer Paradigm for Ad-hoc Vehicular Communication


The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an emerging paradigm aiming to introduce a plethora of innovative applications and services that imposea certain quality of service requirements. The IoV mainly relies on vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) for autonomous inter-vehicle communication and road-traffic safety management. With the ever-increasing demand to design new and emerging applications for VANETs, one challenge that continues to stand out is the provision of acceptable Quality of Service (QoS) requirements to particular user applications. Most existing solutions to this challenge rely on a single layer of the protocol stack. This paper presents a cross-layer decision-based routing protocol that necessitates to choose the best multi-hop path for packet delivery to meet acceptable QoS requirements. The proposed protocol acquires the information about the channel rate from the physical layer and incorporates this information in decision making while directing traffic at the network layer level. Key performance metrics for the system design are analyzed using extensive experimental simulation scenarios. In addition, three data rate variant solutions are proposed to cater for various application-specific requirements in highways and urban environments.


Existing works presented a cross-layered architecture for cooperative VANETs. This architecture makes routing decisions on the basis of link capacity while adjusting the connectivity probability at the MAC layer. In the context of VANETs, Existing works have designed a video dissemination routing protocol under dynamic road traffic conditions in an urban environment. The proposed routing protocol uses the rate control mechanism to control the dissemination of information as per data traffic, thereby minimizing channel overloading.


  • Existing solutions rely on a single layer of the protocol stack.
  • Existing routing decisions decreases the systemperformance in terms of packet drop ratio.
  • Low packet delivery ratio.


  • The design of a Cross Layer Decision Based Routing Protocol CLDBRP is proposed in this paper, which links the channel rate information from the PHY-MAC layer to establish correct routing decisions within the network. In a conventional OSI-layered architecture, individual layers use their own set of variables.
  • Conversely, a cross-layered approach utilises the bottom-up method, where the upper layers are optimized accordingly after considering parameters from the lower layers. On the basis of the WAVE protocol stack, the OSI layer model is sub-divided into three main sub-layers, namely PHY-MAC, Network and Application. The communication range is calculated by considering PHY-MAC layer parameters such as SINR, channel rate and channel dynamics at the network layer.
  • The major variable at PHY layer that can be utilized at the upper layers is the data rate (throughput) information. Data rate is dependent on signal strength, i.e., available bandwidth, SINR, transmit/receive power and wireless channel dynamics with respect to time. An overall efficient system can be designed by varying the routing parameters consistent with the PHY-MAC layer variables.


  • High packet delivery ratio.
  • Low packet delay.
  • Less packet drop ratio.




  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB


  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)


Sabih ur Rehman, Member, IEEE, M.Arif Khan, Member, IEEE, Muhammad Imran, Member, IEEE,Tanveer A Zia, Member, IEEE, and Mohsin Iftikhar, Member, IEEE, “Enhancing Quality of Service Conditions Using aCross-Layer Paradigm for Ad-hoc VehicularCommunication”, IEEE SYSTEMS JOURNAL,2017.

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