A Cooperative Clustering Protocol With Duty Cycling for Energy Harvesting Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks

A Cooperative Clustering Protocol With Duty Cycling for Energy Harvesting Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks


This paper proposes a cooperative clustering protocol based on the low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) approach to enhance the longevity of energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN). In the proposed protocol, to ensure that any energy consumption associated with the role of the cluster head (CH) is shared between the nodes, the CH role is alternated between the nodes using duty cycling as a function of their individual energy harvesting capabilities. Furthermore, to maintain an energy neutral operation when not acting as a CH, the nodes adopt a data transmission duty cycle and any excess energy is invested in relaying other nodes’ packets. To optimize the relaying performance, a novel crosslayer cooperative TDMA scheme is also presented. The optimal number of clusters in an EH-WSN is analyzed in terms of energy consumption, latency and bandwidth utilization. Simulations, performed using GreenCastalia, demonstrate tangible performance enhancements in adopting the proposed protocol over benchmark schemes in terms of throughput and lifetime, particularly under highly constrained energy conditions.

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     Existing system, develop a low complexity cooperative diversity protocol for low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) based wireless sensor networks. A cross layer approach is used to obtain spatial diversity in the physical layer. In this paper, a simple modification in clustering algorithm of the LEACH protocol is proposed to exploit virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) based user cooperation. In lieu of selecting a single cluster-head at network layer, we proposed M cluster-heads in each cluster to obtain a diversity order of M in long distance communication. Due to the broadcast nature of wireless transmission, cluster-heads are able to receive data from sensor nodes at the same time. This fact ensures the synchronization required to implement a virtual MIMO based space time block code (STBC) in cluster-head to sink node transmission. An analytical method to evaluate the energy consumption based on BER curve is presented. Analysis and simulation results show that proposed cooperative LEACH protocol can save a huge amount of energy over LEACH protocol with same data rate, bit error rate, delay and bandwidth requirements. Moreover, this proposal can achieve higher order diversity with improved spectral efficiency compared to other virtual MIMO based protocols.


  • Losses in data collection
  • More energy consumption.
  • Decrease network lifetime


           In this paper, clustering, duty cycling and cooperative transmission are combined into a novel cross-layer design for EH-WSNs. The new protocol named Energy-Harvesting and Cooperative LEACH (ECO-LEACH), modifies the LEACH technique by replacing its probabilistic CH selection process with a duty cycle based one to efficiently regulate the frequency at which a node undertakes the CH role. Besides the inherent duty cycling used by the TDMA scheduler in LEACH, another duty cycle is adopted here, by which the cluster members can skip certain allocated timeslots to main-tain an ENO state. Moreover, each node follows another duty cycle to select the TDMA frames in which it is available to act as a relay. To complete the protocol, a novel cooperative TDMA scheme is proposed whereby a time-slot is split into two sub-slots. All potential relays listen to the active node’s transmission in the first sub-slot then the best relay transmits the received packet to the destination in the second sub-slot. The selection of the above duty cycles accounts for the node’s energy harvesting rate, packet arrival rate and the optimal percentage of CHs in the network. Hence, a rigorous analysis of the optimal CH percentage (OCHP) is given, which unlike in the case of LEACH, may not necessarily minimize the network energy consumption. Instead, the optimal percentage is the one that minimizes the latency while simultaneously achieves the ENO state and bandwidth requirements.


  • Reduce the energy consumption
  • Decrease losses in data collection
  • Increase network lifetime.



  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB


  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)


Mohammed S. Bahbahani and Emad Alsusa School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, “A Cooperative Clustering Protocol With Duty Cycling for Energy Harvesting Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2017.

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