A General Framework for Implicit and Explicit Social Recommendation

A General Framework for Implicit and Explicit Social Recommendation


Research of social recommendation aims at exploiting social information to improve the quality of a recommender system. It can be further divided into two classes. Explicit social recommendation assumes the existence of not only the users’ ratings on items, but also the explicit social connections between users. Implicit social recommendation assumes the availability of only the ratings but not the social connections between users, and attempts to infer implicit social connections between users with the goal to boost recommendation accuracy. This paper proposes a unified framework that is applicable to both explicit and implicit social recommendation. We propose an optimization framework to learn the degree of social correlation and rating prediction jointly, so these two tasks can mutually boost the performance of each other. Furthermore, a well-known challenge for implicit social recommendation is that it takes quadratic time to learn the strength of pairwise connections. This paper further proposes several practical tricks to reduce the complexity of our model to be linear to the observed ratings. The experiments show that the proposed model, with only two parameters, can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art solutions for both explicit and implicit social recommender systems.



  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB


  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : Python
  • Database :         MYSQL


Chin-Chi Hsu, Mi-Yen Yeh, Shou-De Lin, “A General Framework for Implicit and Explicit Social Recommendation”, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2018.

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