Trustworthiness Evaluation-based Routing Protocol for Incompletely Predictable Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

Trustworthiness Evaluation-based RoutingProtocol for Incompletely PredictableVehicular Ad hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Incompletely predictable vehicular ad hoc networks is a type of networks where vehicles move in a certain range or just in a particular tendency, which is very similar to some circumstances in reality. However, how to route in such type of networks more efficiently according to the node motion characteristics and related historical big data is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol named trustworthiness evaluation-based routing protocol (TERP). In our protocol, trustworthiness of each individual is calculated by the cloud depending on the attribute parameters uploaded by the corresponding vehicle. In addition,according to the trustworthiness provided by the cloud, vehicles in the network choose reliable forward nodes and complete the entire route. The analysis shows that our protocol can effectively improve the fairness of the trustworthiness judgement. In the simulation, our protocol has a good performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio, normalized routing overhead and average end-to-end delay.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • After having an appropriate algorithm to compute the vehicle trustworthiness, a robust center for big data collection, analysis and trustworthiness distribution is also demanded. As is well known, the most important features of cloud computing are distributed computing and mass storage.
  • Applying the features of cloud computing into practice,researchers have proposed many outstanding schemes and protocols in their own fields. It is a good choice to use the cloud to collect, store and analyze attribute parameters to provide the trustworthiness of any vehicle to the nodes querying for the vehicle’s trustworthiness

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Although many protocols have been proposed for vehicle networks,some open issues, such as network feature utilization and trustworthiness evaluation, etc., have not yet been resolved.
  • From one side, relationships among different timestamps and positions in the same vehicle are not fully used as the important information for routing search.
  • In traditional routing protocols, routing situations at each moment are usually considered separately. However, the continuity of vehicle movement in time is ignored.
  • On the other side,there is no way to completely avoid the current trustworthiness mechanism from providing false or unfair trustworthiness value.
  • In a trusted scheme or mechanism, its own trustworthiness value is mainly given by the node itself, or decided by team members

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, we proposed a trustworthiness evaluation based routing protocol (TERP). The trustworthiness of every vehicle is taken into consideration, which is obtained through the attribute parameters of the vehicle and is provided by the cloud. The cloud is used in order to host the vast amount of historical big data related to vehicle activities, on which the trust evaluation is based.
  • The cloud server acts as a trusted third part to provide fair trustworthiness evaluation. This avoids problems caused by different criteria for the evaluation of vehicle trustworthiness. At the same time, the cloud server can also reduce the calculation and storage overhead of each vehicle terminal.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • A balanced node utilization ratio is defined
  • A fair trustworthiness evaluation is proposed
  • A method for value re-excavation from knowninformation is presented.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Jian Shen, Member, IEEE, Chen Wang, Aniello Castiglione, Member, IEEE Dengzhi Liu and Christian Esposito, Member, IEEE, “Trustworthiness Evaluation-based Routing Protocol for Incompletely Predictable Vehicular Ad hoc Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIG DATA,2017.

Distributed Aggregate Privacy-PreservingAuthentication in VANETs

Distributed Aggregate Privacy-Preserving Authentication in VANETs

ABSTRACT:

Existing secure and privacy-preserving vehicular communication protocols in vehicular ad hoc networks face the challenges of being fast and not depending on ideal tamper-proof devices (TPDs) embedded in vehicles. To address these challenges, we propose a vehicular authentication protocol referred to as distributedaggregate privacy-preserving authentication. The pro-posed protocol is based on our new multiple trusted authority one-time identity-based aggregate signature technique. With this technique a vehicle can verify many messages simultaneously and their signatures can be compressed into a single one that greatly reduces the storage space needed by a vehicle or a data collector (e.g., the traffic management authority). Instead of ideal TPDs, our protocol only requires realistic TPDs and hence is more practical.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The existing protocol named APPA, is built on a one-time identity-based aggregate signature (OTIBAS) and the multiplicative secret sharing (MSS) technique, and, also requires the master secret (shares) of TA to be stored in a TPD.
  • MSS is used to achieve leakage resiliency, i.e., the scheme remains secure in the presence of bounded information leakage of the master secret stored in the TPDs. Yet, a leakage-resilient scheme cannot withstand an obstinate attacker who continually places the TPD under a long-term side-channel attack.
  • In fact, this attack strategy is attractive and practical for criminals, since, once the master secret is extracted, they can fully control the entire VANET.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Suffer from time-consuming cryptographic operations.
  • Huge volume of cryptographic data.
  • Costly certificate/pseudonym management and/orreliance on ideal TPDs.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose an efficient distributed aggregate privacy-preserving authentication (DAPPA) protocol for secure vehicular communications.The proposed protocol is based on our new multiple trusted authority one-time identity-based aggregate signature technique.
  • An MTA-OTIBAS scheme consists of a root TA, several lower-level TAs and users. Each lower-level TA is enrolled by the root TA. A user can register to any lower-level TA and compute a signature on a message if the user has obtained a private key from the lower-level TA. The signature is only valid under the user’s identity and the public information of the lower-level TA.
  • An MTA-OTIBAS scheme has the following features. Firstly, each user’s public key is his identity, which avoids certificate management. Secondly, a signer’s private key, associated with an identity and a lower-level TA, is restricted to be used only once and will be updated after each use. Thirdly, the MTA-OTIBAS scheme allows numerous signatures to be aggregated into a single one for fast verification and storage saving.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Reduces the storage space needed by a vehicle or a data collector.
  • With this technique a vehicle can verify many messages simultaneously.
  • Our protocol only requires realistic TPDs.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Lei Zhang,Member, IEEE, Qianhong Wu, Member, IEEE, Josep Domingo-Ferrer,Fellow, IEEE,Bo Qin, and Chuanyan Hu “Distributed Aggregate Privacy-PreservingAuthentication in VANETs”.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 2017.

 

EAAP: Efficient Anonymous Authentication With Conditional Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

EAAP: Efficient Anonymous Authentication With Conditional Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Providing an efficient anonymous authentication scheme in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) with low computational cost is a challenging issue. Even though, there are some existing schemes to provide anonymous authentication, the existing schemes suffer from high computational cost in the certificate and the signature verification process, which leads to high message loss. Therefore, they fail to meet the necessity of verifying hundreds of messages per second in VANETs. In our scheme, we propose an efficient anonymous authentication scheme to avoid malicious vehicles entering into the VANET. In addition, the proposed scheme offers a conditional tracking mechanism to trace the vehicles or roadside units that abuse the VANET. As a result, our scheme revokes the privacy of misbehaving vehicles to provide conditional privacy in a computationally efficient way through which the VANET entities will be anonymous to each other until they are revoked from the VANET system. Moreover, the proposed scheme is implemented and the performance analysis shows that our scheme iscomputationally efficient with respect to the certificate and the signature verification process by keeping conditional privacy in VANETs.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Existing systems proposed the Group signature Based (GSB) scheme based on the use of group signature technique. In this scheme, the vehicle’s OBUs are not required to store a large number of anonymous keys and the TA can efficiently trace the targeted vehicle in the case of misbehaving. However, in this scheme, the vehicles are required to store the revocation list to avoid the communication with revoked vehicles.
  • There-fore, for a large scale network, verification process grows linearly with the increment of number of revoked vehicles on the revocation list. Hence, each vehicle needs to spend more time and it is not feasible when the revocation list in large. Gamage et al. proposed an ID based ring signature scheme in order to fulfill the privacy requirement of a signer in VANET applications.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Computationally higher cost authentication scheme for both vehicles and RSUs is proposed.
  • Certificate and signature verificationcost for providing efficient data integrity is higher.
  • High packet loss ratio between RSU and Vehicles.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose an efficient anonymous authentication scheme with conditional privacy preserving (EAAP) for VANETs. The EAAP is designed based on the following four security requirements: 1) the privacy offered by the TA to the vehicles in the VANET system is a conditional privacy. 2) The construction of EAAP scheme is based on bilinear pairing. 3) In this EAAP scheme, the TA does not require to store the anonymous certificates of vehicles and RSUs.
  • Instead, the vehicles and RSUs can generate their anonymous certificates on their own to protect their privacy. 4) In the event of any conflict, the TA has the ability to successfully revoke the anonymity of a misbehaving vehicle to disclose its real identity. Then the revoked identity is placed in the identity revocation list (IRL) which is maintained by the TA.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Provides the anonymous authentication.
  • Low certificate and signatureverification cost
  • Provide an efficient conditionalprivacy tracking mechanism to reveal the real identity of themalicious vehicle.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Maria Azees, Pandi Vijayakumar, and Lazarus Jegatha Deboarh “EAAP: Efficient Anonymous Authentication With Conditional Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 2017.

 

Efficient Privacy-Preserving Dual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Secure V2V Communications in an IoV Paradigm

Efficient Privacy-Preserving Dual Authenticationand Key Agreement Scheme for Secure V2V Communications in an IoV Paradigm

ABSTRACT:

The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) aims to provide a new convenient, comfortable, and safe driving way, and in turn enables intelligent transportation through wireless communications among road-side units, on-board units (OBUs), phones, and other devices inside a vehicle. However, significantly increasing reliance on wireless communication, control, and computing technology makes IoV more vulnerable to potential attacks, such as remote intrusion, control, and trajectory tracking. Therefore, efficient authentication solutions preventing unauthorized visitors need to be addressed to cope with these issues. Hence, in this paper we focus on the security and privacy-preserving by developing a dual authentication scheme for IoV according to its different scenarios. First, the OBU self-generates an anonymous identity and temporary encryption key to open an authentication session. Second, the legitimacy of the vehicle’s real and anonymous identity can be verified by trust authority (TA). After that, the vehicle’s reputation is evaluated according to its history interactive behavior and the session key for V2V can be finally established. There are three major advantages,including privacy-preserving and security enhancement withouta burden of key management in the condition of acceptable time delay range, introducing trust evaluation into authentication protocol, as well as considering the vehicle behavior attributes in the new reputation evaluation method. In addition, we also prove the correctness of this scheme using theBurrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN) logic, and the performancecomparison against the existing schemes is given as well.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • In order to improve the authentication efficiency, some existing work proposed to embed the dependable hardware (e.g., TPM, TPD), as a security chip into vehicles. Therefore, the encryption and decryption operation can be hardware-aided carried out and some sensitive information can be kept secretly.
  • Later, TPM and TPD were comparatively analyzed demonstrating that they both have message encryption ability, and TPD is of high price and intolerable to the high temperature. And a scheme was presented in which uses TPM to check whether every component in a vehicle works accordingly in perfect order without tempering to secure IoV.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Vulnerable to various kinds of Attack
  • High computational cost.
  • High End-to-End delay.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • A novel authentication scheme (PPDAS) is proposed to enhance security and privacy for V2V communications in intelligent transportation systems. PPDAS exploits the advantage of bilinear pairing to compute encryption key without needing additional key management.
  • Meanwhile, vehicles can establish session key without knowing the real identity of each other to effectively protect privacy. Furthermore, the dual verification lever-ages identity and behavior authentication to improve decision-making accuracy

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Resistance to various kinds of Attack
  • Low computational cost.
  • Average End-to-End delay.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Lei Zhang,Member, IEEE, Qianhong Wu, Member, IEEE, Josep Domingo-Ferrer,Fellow, IEEE,Bo Qin, and Chuanyan Hu “Distributed Aggregate Privacy-Preserving Authentication in VANETs”.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 2017.

 

Enhancing Security and Privacy for Identity-based Batch Verification Scheme in VANET

Enhancing Security and Privacy for Identity-based Batch Verification Scheme in VANET

ABSTRACT:

Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) can significantly improve the traffic safety and efficiency. The basic idea is to allow vehicles to send traffic information to roadside units (RSUs) or other vehicles. Vehicles have to be prevented from some attacks on their privacy and misuse of their private data. For this reason, the security and privacy preservation issues are important prerequisites for VANET. The identity-based batch verification (IBV) scheme was newly proposed to make VANET more secure and efficient for practical use. In this paper, we point out that the current IBV scheme exists some security risks. We introduce an improved scheme that can satisfy the security and privacy desired by vehicles. The proposed IBV scheme provides the provable security in the random oracle model. In addition, the batch verification of the proposed scheme needs only a small constant number of pairing and point multiplication computations, independent of the number of messages. We show the efficiency merits of the proposed scheme through performance evaluations in terms of computation delay and transmission overhead. Moreover, the extensive simulation is conducted to verify the efficiency and applicability of the proposed scheme in the real-world road environment and vehicular traffic.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Existing system proposed a scheme based on a group signature. With this scheme, only a group public key and a private key are stored in the vehicle. The group public key is the same for all vehicles, and the private key of each vehicle is different. Any receiver only confirms the authenticity of the signature by the group public key, and the vehicle has no identity information of the message sender in the transmitted message.
  • Despite decreasing the overhead of pre-loading a large number of anonymous key materials in each vehicle, this scheme increases a large computational overhead through its requirement to maintain a certificate revocation list. In addition, the length of group signature is much longer than one of ordinary signature, and the computational cost of verifying group signature is high.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • High computational overhead due to maintaining of certificate revocation list.
  • High computational cost in terms of verifying group signature.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose an identity-based batch verification (IBV) scheme to assure anonymous authentication, message integrity, privacy and traceability.
  • The proposed IBV scheme can be used in both V2I and V2V communications.
  • The IBV scheme can withstand our proposed threats such as the identity privacy violation, forgery and anti-traceability attacks.
  • Compared to the previous schemes, the proposed IBV scheme is efficient in computational cost of verification delay. It is because the process of batch verification needs only a small constant number of pairing and point multiplication computations.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Low computational overhead.
  • Less computational cost in verifying group signature.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Shiang-Feng Tzeng, Shi-Jinn Horng, Tianrui Li, Xian Wang, Po-Hsian Huang, and Muhmmad Khurram Khan, “Enhancing Security and Privacy for Identity-based Batch Verification Scheme in VANET”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2017.

 

CBS: Community-based Bus System as Routing Backbone for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

CBS: Community-based Bus System as RoutingBackbone for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Compared to general vehicular systems, bus systems have advantages including wide coverage, fixed routes and regularservice. Inspired by these unique features of the bus systems, we propose to use the bus systems as routing backbones of VANETs. Inthis work, we present a Community-based Bus System (CBS) which consists of two components: a community-based backbone and arouting scheme over the backbone. The backbone construction is a one-off operation which is done offline while the routing is doneonline in individual buses. We build a community-based backbone by applying community detection techniques and propose a two-levelrouting scheme which operates over the backbone. The proposed routing scheme performs sequentially in the inter-community leveland the intra-community level, and is able to support message delivery to both buses and specific locations/areas. We develop aprobabilistic model to analyze the message delivery latency of CBS. The average error of the analytically-derived latency is shown tobe 8.9% of the latency derived from the real traces. Extensive experiments are conducted on real-world traces from the Beijing bussystem and the Dublin bus system and the results show that CBS can significantly lower the delivery latency and improve the deliveryratio, compared to the existing solutions. CBS is a general solution which is applicable to any bus-based VANETs.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • In the existing solutions, delivering a message from one vehicle to another is usually determined based on eitherreal-time information or historical information.
  • With the former strategy, avehicle holding a message selects its next-hop relay vehiclebased on the real-time information such as geographicalposition, vehicle density and moving direction. This strategyperforms well in dense VANETs but it is hard to find suitablerelay vehicles in sparse networks.
  • The latter strategy utilizeshistorical information of vehicles to estimate the occurrencesof their contacts in future. A vehicle delivers its messageto the relay vehicle with the largest chance in contact withthe destination vehicles. Notice that the contacts of vehicles(e.g., taxis) are not on a regular/routine basis but randomin practice. Two vehicles that contacted previously may notcontact again in the near future.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Low packet delivery ratio.
  • High delivery latency

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this work, we propose a Community-based Bus Sys-tem (CBS) as routing backbone of VANETs.
  • We propose to utilize bus system as a routing back-bone of VANETs. Based on the bus contact information, we build a community-based backbone by applying the community detection techniques of social networks.We develop a probabilistic model to analyze the message delivery latency of our proposed solution CBS. The average error of the analytically-derived latency is shown to be 8.9% of the latency derived from the real traces.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Improve packet delivery ratio.
  • Decrease delivery latency

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Fusang Zhang, Hai Liu, Yiu-Wing Leung, Xiaowen Chu, and Beihong Jin, “CBS: Community-based Bus System as RoutingBackbone for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING,2017.

Adaptive Quality of Service based Routing for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks with Ant Colony Optimization

Adaptive Quality of Service based Routing for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks with Ant Colony Optimization

ABSTRACT:

Developing highly efficient routing protocols forVehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) is a challenging taskmainly due to the special characters of such networks: large-scalesizes, frequent link disconnections and rapid topology changes. Inthis paper, we propose an adaptive quality of service (QoS) basedrouting for VANETs called AQRV. This new routing protocol isto adaptively choose the intersections through which data packetspass to reach the destination, and the selected route should satisfywith the QoS constraints and fulfill the best QoS in terms ofthree metrics, namely connectivity probability, packet deliveryratio and delay. To achieve the above objectives, we mathematicallyformulate the routing selection issue as a constrainedoptimization problem, and propose an Ant Colony Optimization(ACO) based algorithm to solve this problem. In addition, aterminal intersection concept is presented to decrease routingexploration time and alleviate network congestion. Moreover,in order to decrease network overhead, we propose Local QoSModels (LQM) to estimate real-time and complete QoS of urbanroad segments. Simulation results validate our derived LQMmodels and show the effectiveness of AQRV.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Existing system DUBHE is a reliable and low-latency routing protocol for transmitting data from source vehicles to stationary road-side infrastructures, and it is composed of three components including a delay model, a path choosing algorithm and an improved greedy broadcast algorithm.
  • IGRP is an efficient routing protocol for V2I communication, and it is based on effective road intersection selections, which are implemented in terms of network connectivity, delay, bandwidth and error rate. However, IGRP is a source-driven routing protocol, which requires a complete route and cannot cope with rapid topology changes in VANET environments.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The QoS of route is not accurate.
  • The routing exploration algorithms arenot effective and adaptive.
  • The routing selections are implemented by means of the incomplete or local QoS.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this, an Adaptive QoS-based Routing for VANETs called AQRV is proposed to deal with the aforementioned problems. We firstly formulate this route selection issue as an optimization problem, and propose an ACO-based algorithm to solve this NP-complete issue. Then, based on both global and local pheromone (reflecting the QoS of routing paths and road segments, respectively), AQRV makes use of forward and backward ants to establish the optimal route via an opportunistic method rather than the blind flooding.
  • Once the route selection process is completed, source vehicles initiate data packets transmission, which is implemented through dynamic intersection selections. Note that the comprehensive real-time local QoS (namely connectivity probability, delay and packet delivery ratio) is derived by our mathematical models. In addition, a simple greedy carry-and-forward mechanism is adopted to relay packets between two adjacent intersections so as to reduce the effects of individual vehicle movements on the routing paths.
  • Thanks to dynamic routing decisions on intersections and closed cooperations of different ants and communication pairs, AQRV is capable of adaptively coping with rapid topology changes in VANET scenarios.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • It improves routing stability.
  • It adaptively copes with topology changes.
  • It decrease network overhead.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Guangyu Li, Lila Boukhatem, and Jinsong Wu, Senior Member, IEEE, “Adaptive Quality of Service based Routing forVehicular Ad hoc Networks with Ant ColonyOptimization”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, 2017.

TruFiX: A Configurable Trust-based Cross-Layer Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

TruFiX: A Configurable Trust-based Cross-Layer Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

The cross-layering concept has enabled flexibility in sensor communication by decreasing the level of modularity through inter-layer information exchange. This has improved adaptability, reliability, and efficiency in the communication process. This is principally so, because the inter-layer information is utilized to enable the selection of nodes that are perceived tofoster efficient communication. However, despite these numerous achievements, the cross-layering concept suffers immensely as a result of security attacks which prey on nodes utilized for data forwarding. In this paper, we propose T-XLM, a trust-based cross-layering framework to provide minimal defense against security attacks. The framework introduces a fuzzy-based trust estimation mechanism, which is used to formulate imprecise empirical knowledge that is utilized for reputation building in the nodes to ensure secure forwarding and reliable delivery of data. We further proposed Trust-based fuzzy implicit cross-layer protocol (TruFiX), a T-XLM inspired protocol which utilizes multiple parameters pulled through inter-layer information exchange to mitigate the effects of security threats in a network. Using extensive simulation experiments, TruFiX was compared to Resource bound security solution (RBSS) based protocols, which also achieved minimal security by altering the irrouting semantics. The conducted experiments evaluated the security performance of the protocols and the results show that the proposed TruFiX significantly outperforms the RBSS based protocols in terms of Packet Delivery.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Weighting-based estimation is carried out by weighing the interaction of the communicating entities over a period of time. GMTS and PLUS employed this estimation approach by attaching weighting factors to some of the variables to control and ensure that estimates are within an assigned threshold.
  • Also, the approach uses formulated equations capable of accommodating multiple node parameters deduced from multiple layers for trust estimation. In some instances, a parameter is assigned a weighting factor to strengthen its degree of importance in the equation.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • However, the weighting factors(selected randomly) may affect the outcome of the estimationand parameter combination.
  • Furthermore, the equations mostly employed for the trust estimation lack mathematical or statistical backing in theories or concepts.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose a T-XLM cross-layer framework. The T-XLM employs trust to determine a nodes incentive in partaking in the routing process. We further propose TruFiX, a T-XLM inspired protocol. The protocol employs 2-fuzzy logic systems for trust estimation. This estimation approach was employed due to its ability to accommodate multiple inputs, perform human-like decisions as well as cope with uncertainties to produce the most flexible scaled outcomes, such that trust are not interpreted as probabilities but rather as a gradual phenomenon similar to human interpretations. Thus, an entity is being trusted very much or more or less.
  • This interpretation has eliminated opinions that consider trust and distrust as opposite ends of the same continuous scale that are ill-equipped to differentiate a nodes weakness from malicious behavior. For instance, a node’s congested buffer that often drops packet can be mistaken for a malicious behavior and marked distrusted despite it behaving in accordance with its best capacity.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Low Attacker Selection Probability.
  • High Packet Delivery Ratio
  • Less Energy Consumption.
  • Less End-to-end Delay

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Idris Abubakar Umar, Zurina Mohd Hanapi, (Member, IEEE),A. Sali, (Member, IEEE), Zuriati A. Zulkarnain, (Member, IEEE), “TruFiX: A Configurable Trust-based Cross-Layer Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”, JOURNAL OF LATEX CLASS FILES,2017.

Traffic Decorrelation Techniques for Countering a Global Eavesdropper in WSNs

Traffic Decorrelation Techniques for Countering a Global Eavesdropper in WSNs

ABSTRACT:

We address the problem of preventing the inference of contextual information in event-driven wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The problem is considered under a global eavesdropper who analyzes low-level RF transmission attributes, such as the number of transmitted packets, inter-packet times, and traffic directionality, to infer event location, its occurrence time, and the sink location. We devise a general traffic analysis method for inferring contextual information by correlating transmission times with eavesdropping locations. Our analysis shows that most existing countermeasures either fail to provide adequate protection, or incur high communication and delay overheads. To mitigate the impact of eavesdropping, we propose resource-efficient traffic normalization schemes. In comparison to the state-of-the-art, our methods reduce the communication overhead by more than 50%; and the end-to-end delay by more than 30%. To do so, we partition the WSN to minimum connected dominating sets that operate in a round-robin fashion. This allows us to reduce the number of traffic sources active at a given time, while providing routing paths to any node in the WSN. We further reduce packet delay by loosely coordinating packet relaying, without revealing the traffic directionality.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The problem of preserving contextual information privacy has been studied under various adversarial scenarios. Threat models can be classified based on the adversary’s network view (local vs. global) or the capabilities of the eavesdropping devices (packet decoding, localization of the transmission source, etc.).
  • Under a local model, eavesdroppers are assumed to intercept only a fraction of the WSN traffic. Hiding methods include random walks, adding of pseudo-sources and pseudo-destinations, creation of routing loops, and flooding.
  • These methods can only provide probabilistic obfuscation guarantees, because eavesdroppers locations are unknown. Under a global model, all communications within the WSN are assumed to be intercepted and collectively analyzed.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • First, eavesdroppers are passive devices that are hard to detect.
  • Second, the availability of low-cost commodity radio hardware makes it inexpensive to deploy a large number of eavesdroppers.
  • Third, even if encryption is applied to conceal the packet payload, some fields in the packet headers still need to be transmitted in the clear for correct protocol operation (e.g., PHY-layer headers used for frame detection, synchronization, etc.). These unencrypted fields facilitate accurate estimation of transmission attributes.
  • High communication overhead and increased end-to-end delay for reporting events.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We study the problem of resource efficient traffic randomization for hiding contextual information in event-driven WSNs, under a global adversary.
  • Our main contributions are summarized as follows:
  • We present a general traffic analysis method for inferring contextual information that is used as a baseline for comparing methods with varying assumptions.
  • Our method relies on minimal information, namely packet transmission time and eavesdropping location.
  • We propose traffic normalization methods that hide the event location, its occurrence time, and the sink location from global eavesdroppers.
  • Compared to existing approaches, our methods reduce the communication and delay overheads by limiting the injected bogus traffic. This is achieved by constructing minimum connected dominating sets (MCDSs) and MCDSs with shortest paths to the sink (SSMCDSs).
  • We characterize the algorithmic complexity for building SS-MCDSs and develop efficient heuristics.
  • To reduce the forwarding delay, we design a rate control scheme that loosely coordinates sensor transmissions over multi-hop paths without revealing real traffic patterns or the traffic directionality.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • The proposed system reduces the communication and delay overheads by limiting the injected bogus traffic.
  • The proposed system reduces the forwarding delay
  • We compare privacy and overhead of our techniques to prior art and show the savings achieved.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Alejandro Proa˜no, Loukas Lazos, and Marwan Krunz, “Traffic Decorrelation Techniques for Counteringa Global Eavesdropper in WSNs”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING 2017

 

ROSE: Robustness Strategy for Scale-Free Wireless Sensor Networks

ROSE: Robustness Strategy for Scale-Free Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Due to the recent proliferation of cyber-attacks,improving the robustness of wireless sensor networks (WSNs),so that they can withstand node failures has become a criticalissue. Scale-free WSNs are important, because they toleraterandom attacks very well; however, they can be vulnerable tomalicious attacks, which particularly target certain importantnodes. To address this shortcoming, this paper first presents anew modeling strategy to generate scale-free network topologies,which considers the constraints in WSNs, such as the communicationrange and the threshold on the maximum node degree.Then, ROSE, a novel robustness enhancing algorithm for scalefreeWSNs, is proposed. Given a scale-free topology, ROSEexploits the position and degree information of nodes to rearrangethe edges to resemble an onion-like structure, which has beenproven to be robust against malicious attacks. Meanwhile, ROSEkeeps the degree of each node in the topology unchanged suchthat the resulting topology remains scale-free. The extensiveexperimental results verify that our new modeling strategy indeedgenerates scale-free network topologies for WSNs, and ROSE cansignificantly improve the robustness of the network topologiesgenerated by our modeling strategy. Moreover, we compareROSE with two existing robustness enhancing algorithms, showingthat ROSE outperforms both.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Louzadaet al. proposed a smart rewiring method, which determines the edges that need to be compared by using two-fold selections.
  • Zhou and Liu designed a memetic algorithm, which is a type of significance enhancing method that combines both global and local searching to improve the robustness of scale-free networks against malicious attacks without changing the degree distribution. However, the smart rewiring and the memetic algorithm do not consider the limitation of the communication range for network nodes, and therefore are not suitable for WSNs.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Vulnerable to malicious attacks.
  • Consumes more computation time

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, first a net-work model with the scale-free property based on the improved growth and preferential attachment processes from the well-known BA model was built. A newly proposed algorithm called ROSE was designed for enhancing the robustness of scale-free networks against malicious attacks.
  • The combination of a degree difference operation and an angle sum operation in the algorithm makes scale-free network topologies rapidly approach an onion-like structure without changing the original power-law distribution.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Improves robustness againstmalicious attacks.
  • Consumes less computation time

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Tie Qiu, Senior Member, IEEE, ACM, Aoyang Zhao, Student Member, IEEE,Feng Xia, Senior Member, IEEE, ACM, Weisheng Si, Member, IEEE, and Dapeng Oliver Wu, Fellow, IEEE, “ROSE: Robustness Strategy for Scale-FreeWireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2017.