### Generalized 3-D Constellation Design for Spatial Modulation

__Generalized 3-D Constellation Design forSpatial Modulation__

__Generalized 3-D Constellation Design forSpatial Modulation__

__ABSTRACT:__

Spatial modulation (SM) conveys information bits by utilizing both antenna index and complexsymbols to form a 3-dimension (3-D) constellation. Similar to two dimensional modulation, the structureof 3-D constellation could greatly affect the transmission reliability. In this paper, a generalized 3-Dconstellation design is proposed to optimize the constellation diagram used for each antenna, i.e.,to optimize the complex symbols and their total number for each antenna and finally to enhancethe transmission reliability. The optimal design method with exhaustive search algorithm may causeprohibitive computational complexity especially when the cardinality of 3-D constellation is large. Toovercome this issue, a recursive design algorithm is proposed with a computational complexity increasingpolynomially with the cardinality of 3-D constellation. Extensions of the proposed methods to SMconstellation design for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission, generalized spatialmodulation (GSM) constellation design, and SM constellation design with transmit antenna correlationare also discussed. Simulations are done to validate those theoretical analysis, and results show that theproposed 3-D constellation design is a generalized design scheme and can be adopted in any SM/GSMsystems without constraints on the number of transceiver antennas. It is also shown that the proposedapproach offers better symbol-error-rate (SER) performance than other solutions.

__ ____OBJECTIVE:__

To SMconstellation design for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission, generalized spatialmodulation (GSM) constellation design, and SM constellation design with transmit antenna correlationare also discussed. Simulations are done to validate those theoretical analysis, and results show that theproposed 3-D constellation design is a generalized design scheme and can be adopted in any SM/GSMsystems without constraints on the number of transceiver antennas. It is also shown that the proposedapproach offers better symbol-error-rate (SER) performance than other solutions.

** **__INTRODUCTION:__

The advent of spatial modulation (SM) has enabled a brand new 3-dimensional (3-D)modulation by exploiting the potential of both the space and signal domains. Through employingthe on/off keying of antennas and the conventional amplitude and phase modulation (APM), 3-Dmodulation offers significant multiplexing gain with a single radio frequency (RF) chain. It hasdrawn a lot of attention in the research field of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)/massiveMIMO by virtue of its enticing advantages such as the low cost and high energy-efficiency. Moreover it has also been implemented in a testbed.

** **__EXISTING SYSTEM:__

**Yang, M. D. Renzo, Y. Xiao, S. Li, and L. Hanzo, “Design guidelines for spatial modulation,”***IEEE Commun. SurveysTuts.*, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 6–26, 1st Quat. 2015

Investigated the star-quadrature amplitude modulation (star-QAM) based constellation design forSM, and it was shown that the performance of star-QAM based SM is better than that of theconventional APM.

**Zhang, C. Wang, S. Guo, and H. Zhang, “Novel APM constellation design for spatial modulation systems,” in***Proc.IEEE WCSP*, Nangjing, China, Oct. 2015, pp. 1–5

Investigated APMwith multiple rings, where each ring may contain different number of constellation points.

** **__DRAWBACKS:__

- The number of transmit antennas is not a power of two, only a power of two are chosen to form the 3-D constellation structure, which may reduce the performance.
- Their performance is limited by transmit antenna correlation.

__PROPOSED SYSTEM:__

A new 3-D constellation design has been proposed for SM . Benefiting from the key idea of jointly mapping a group of informationbits to 3-D constellation (also referred as 3-D mapping) directly, transmitters can have arbitrarynumber of antennas and a flexible number of symbols for each antenna. In a 3-D constellation was designed to minimize SER by assuming that a given finite symbol set (e.g. *M*-QAM or*M*-PSK) is employed as signal constellation.

** **__BLOCK DIAGRAM:__

** **__DESCRIPTION:__

This work has focused on generalized joint 3-D constellation design in the complexfield for SM. A constellation design optimization problem subject to the cardinality requirementand the normalized power constraint was formulated. By skillfully solving the problem, both thecomplex symbols and their total number sent by each antenna were optimized. Since the optimaldesign method involves the exhaustive search, and may introduce prohibitive computationalcomplexity especially when the 3-D constellation cardinality is large, a recursive constellationdesign algorithm whose computational complexity increases polynomially with the cardinalityof 3-D constellation has been proposed

** **__ADVANTAGES:__

- Both the complex symbols and their total number sent by each antenna were optimized.
- Easily extended to SM constellation design for massive MIMO uplink/downlink transmission.

__SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:__

__HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:__

- System : Pentium Dual Core.
- Hard Disk : 120 GB.
- Monitor : 15’’ LED
- Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
- Ram :

__SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:__

- Operating system : Windows 7.
- Coding Language : MATLAB
- Tool : MATLAB R2013A

__REFERENCE:__

ShuaishuaiGuo Student Member, IEEE, Haixia Zhang Senior Member, IEEE,Peng Zhang, Dalei Wu, Member, IEEE, and Dongfeng YuanSenior Member, IEEE, “Generalized 3-D Constellation Design forSpatial Modulation”, **IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2017.**