Secure and Efficient data communication protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are expected to play a major role in the field of patient-health monitoring in the near future, which gains tremendous attention amongst researchers in recent years. One of the challenges is to establish a secure communication architecture between sensors and users, whilst addressing the prevalent security and privacy concerns. In this paper, we propose a communication architecture for BANs, and design a scheme to secure the data communications between implanted /wearable sensors and the data sink/data consumers (doctors or nurse) by employing Ciphertext-Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CP ABE)  and signature to store the data in ciphertext format at the data sink, hence ensuring data security. Our scheme achieves a role-based access control by employing an access control tree defined by the attributes of the data. We also design two protocols to securely retrieve the sensitive data from a BAN and instruct the sensors in a BAN. We analyze the proposed scheme, and argue that it provides message authenticity and collusion resistance, and is efficient and feasible. We also evaluate its performance in terms of energy consumption and communication/computation overhead.
PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO:
As a sensor that collects patient information, all it cares is to distribute the information to authorized doctors and other experts securely. However, there are challenges everywhere: Data should be transmitted in a secure channel, and we all know the challenges in securing wireless communication channels. Node authentication is the most fundamental step towards a BAN’s initial trust establishment, key generation, and subsequent secure communications.
There exist research that enables embedded sensors to establish a session key with each other by leverage physiological signals such as Electrocardiograph (ECG).
The most relevant existing research along three lines: (1) securing individual (implantable) devices within a BAN; (2) securing the communications within a BAN; and (3) identity-based cryptography for BANs.
DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:
The key-distribution in symmetric encryption is challenging. And symmetric encryption is not a good choice for broadcasting a message because it involves some challenging issues, such as key-management and access control. At the same time, due to the limitation of memory space in sensors, a data sink, which has considerably larger memory and computation power, is employed to store data.
Recent research disclosed that smartphones suffer from severe privacy concerns since many applications often cross the line and read sensitive data at their free will (for example, almost all apps read user’s location).
A patient’s IPI information may be remotely captured by an ultra-wide-band (UWB) radar device. This leads to a significant security threat as an adversary with a UWB radar can first capture the IPI and then use it to compromise the patient’s health information.
We propose a novel encryption and signature scheme based on CP ABE in this paper to address the secure communication problem and provide the required security services mentioned above for BANs.
A sensor can control the access to the data it has produced by constructing an access structure. For example, by constructing the access structure (fGWU hospitalg AND fVascular Surgery OR Cardiac Surgeryg), the data requires that only doctors or experts in GWU hospital, Vascular Surgery Center or Cardiac Surgery Center can have the access right.
Data are stored in ciphertext format at the data sink and the trust we put on the data sink is now drastically decreased as the data sink does not have the key to decrypt the stored ciphertext. However, the scheme belongs to the asymmetric encryption family, which implies a high computational cost. This problem is addressed by using the scheme to encrypt a session key and then the data is encrypted by symmetric encryption based on the session key.
ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:
We propose a framework that enables authorized doctors and experts to access a patient’s private medical information securely.
Instead of using software or other mechanism to perform access control, we use encryption and signature method to provide a role-based encrypted access control.
The sensor has the ability to control who has access to its data by constructing an access structure for the data.
We minimize the trust that people usually put on the data sink by storing the data in ciphertext. The compromise of the data stored at the data sink does not necessarily indicate that the data is compromised.
We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of energy consumption and communication/computation overhead.
System : Pentium Dual Core.
Hard Disk : 120 GB.
Monitor : 15’’ LED
Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
Ram : 1 GB
Operating system : Windows 7.
Coding Language : NET,C#.NET
Tool : Visual Studio 2008
Database : SQL SERVER 2005
Chunqiang Hu, Student Member, IEEE, Hongjuan Li, Xiuzhen Cheng, Fellow, IEEE, Xiaofeng Liao, Senior Member, IEEE, “Secure and Efficient data communication protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTI-SCALE COMPUTING SYSTEMS, 2016.
Design and Real-Time Controller Implementation for a Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System
In this work, two real-time energy management strategies have been investigated for optimal current split between batteries and ultracapacitors (UCs) in electric vehicle (EV) applications. In the first strategy, an optimization problem is formulated and solved using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to obtain the real-time operation points of current split for the hybrid energy storage system (HESS). In the second strategy, a neural network based strategy is implemented as an intelligent controller for the proposed system. To evaluate the performance of these two real-time strategies, a performance metric based on the battery state-of-health (SoH) is developed to reveal the relative impact of instantaneous battery currents on the battery degradation. A 38V-385Wh battery and a 32V-4.12Wh UC HESS hardware prototype has been developed and a real-time experimental platform has been built for energy management controller validation, using xPC Target and National Instrument data acquisition system (DAQ). Both the simulation and real-time experiment results have successfully validated the real-time implementation feasibility and effectiveness of the two real-time controller designs. It is shown that under a high speed, high acceleration, aggressive drive cycle US06, the two real-time energy management strategies can greatly reduce the battery peak current and consequently decreases the battery SoH reduction by 31% and 38% in comparison to a battery-only energy storage system.
Electric vehicles (EVs) face significant energy storage related challenges, including the range anxiety, high cost, and battery degradation. Batteries, as the energy storage components in majority of current and upcoming EVs, deliver energy to the electric machine during propulsion and recover energy during regenerative braking. For urban drive cycles with frequent stop-and-go, the frequent high power exchange between the electric machine and the ESS results in accelerated battery aging. The battery aging decreases the battery capability of storing energy and providing power over the battery lifetime. One potential solution to this problem is to integrate high-energy (HE) density batteries with high-power (HP) density ultracapacitors (UCs) as hybrid energy storage systems (HESS). UCs has complementary features to batteries with fast charge-discharge, excellent power performance over broad temperature range, long lifetime and high reliability. UCs can protect batteries against fast charging/discharging, reduce high peak power and relieve the battery thermal burden; therefore, prolong the battery lifetime.
In this work, two real-time energy management strategies have been investigated for optimal current split between batteries and ultracapacitors (UCs) in electric vehicle (EV) applications. In this work, the semi-active HESS topology is considered. With this topology, the UC pack discharging/charging current Iuc can be controlled through the control of the DC-DC converter. In addition, as the UC pack is decoupled from the dc bus, its voltage can be lower than the dc bus voltage, and consequently the size and cost of UC can be reduced.
Control and Implementation of a Standalone Solar Photo-Voltaic Hybrid System
A control algorithm for a standalone solar photovoltaic (PV)-diesel-battery hybrid system is implemented in this paper. The proposed system deals with the intermittent nature of the energy generated by the PV array and it also provides power quality improvement. The PV array is integrated through a DC-DC boost converter and controlled using a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to obtain the maximum power under varying operating conditions. The battery energy storage system (BESS) is integrated to the diesel engine generator (DG) set for the coordinated load management and power flow within the system. The admittance based control algorithm is used for load balancing, harmonics elimination and reactive power compensation under three phase four-wire linear and nonlinear loads. A four-leg voltage source converter (VSC) with BESS also provides neutral current compensation. The performance of proposed standalone hybrid system is studied under different loading conditions experimentally on a developed prototype of the system.
Nowadays, the rapid increase in the use of nonlinear loads such as computers, electronics appliances, medical equipment, refrigerators etc. has emphasized the concern for power quality in the electrical distribution system. These loads inject harmonics and distort the current and voltage waveforms causing poor power quality problems. The possible provision for the mitigation of the power quality problems is with inclusion of custom power devices (CPDs). Three-phase four-wire loads are also known to suffer from the problem of neutral current due to non-linearity and unbalance present in the system. This may produce large amount of neutral current which consists of triplen harmonics. The neutral current may cause over-loading of the distribution system and causes additional heat losses which may be dangerous and poses a serious threat to the connected equipment. A four-leg VSC is used for neutral current compensation in addition to mitigate the current harmonics with other reported advantages.
The standalone system consists of a PV array along with a boost converter, MPPT controller, diesel engine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), a four-leg VSC with BESS and three-phase four-wire AC loads. The voltage at the point of common coupling is restored by coordinating the reactive power through VSC control. Under varying conditions of generation and loads, BESS offers charging during the daytime when the insolation is large and the load is less. The battery discharges to compensate for any deficits. The DG set operates while maintaining the system frequency under varying generation and loads. The terminal capacitor provides a constant rated terminal voltage at no load. A four leg VSC is interfaced along with its DC bus. The ripple filter and interfacing inductors are used to eliminate the switching harmonics.
Eliminate harmonics, load balancing.
Provide neutral current compensation by incorporating four-leg VSC.
The ripple filter and interfacing inductors are used to eliminate the switching harmonics.