A Historical-Beacon-Aided Localization Algorithm for Mobile Sensor Networks

A Historical-Beacon-Aided Localization Algorithm for Mobile Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Range-free localization approaches are cost-effective for mobile sensor networks (because no additional hardware support is required). However, existing range-free localization approaches for mobile sensor networks suffer from either sparse anchor node problem or high communication cost. Due to economic considerations, mobile sensor networks typically have sparse anchor nodes which makes most range-free localization algorithms inaccurate. On the other hand, due to the power limitation of mobile sensor nodes (i.e., they are battery-operated) and high power consumption by communication, high communication cost will significantly reduce the network life time. For solving these two problems, in this paper, we use historical beacons (i.e., anchor nodes’ announcements delivered in previous time slots) and received signal strength (RSS) to derive three constraints. By the aid of the three constraints, we introduce a low-communication-cost range-free localization algorithm (only one-hop beacon broadcasting is required). According to the theoretical analysis and simulation results, our three constraints can indeed improve the accuracy. Simulation results also show that our algorithm outperforms even in irregular-radio-signal environments. In addition, a hardware implementation running on sensor nodes, Octopus Xs, confirms theoretical analysis and simulation results.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

A range-based localization algorithm calculates locations with absolute point-to-point distances, while a range-free localization algorithm calculates locations without these distances.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • It is impractical to equip each sensor node with a GPS device in large-scale WSNs.
  • Distance estimation techniques usually require additional expensive hardware support (e.g., angle of arrival (AoA) and time difference of arrival (TDoA)), or have low accuracy (e.g., received signal strength (RSS)-based approaches). Due to the hardware limitations of WSNs, range-free solutions are being pursued as an alternative to range-based solutions.
  • Most of prior range-free localization algorithms were designed for static sensor networks and not applicable to mobile ones.
  • Existing range-free localization approaches for mobile sensor networks usually suffer from sparse anchor node problem and high communication cost.

 PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, we introduce a range-free localization algorithm for mobile sensor node networks. In order to address the sparse anchor node problem and high communication cost problem, our algorithm fully utilizes the advantages of the communication ranges (of nodes), historical beacons, and RSS (of beacons), which are free of communication cost. To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first one to use the RSS of historical beacons in mobile sensor node localization. Our algorithm includes three new constrained regions.
  • A constrained region is a region that can cover the location of the target normal node, e.g., the communication range of a one-hop neighboring anchor node (which is widely adopted in existing range-free algorithms.
  • The three types of RSS-constrained regions:
    • Current-current-RSS-constrained region (CC-region, for short),
    • Current-historical-RSSconstrained region (CH-region, for short), and
    • Historical-historical-RSS-constrained region (HH-region, for short).

 ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Our algorithm has low communication cost (only one-hop beacon broadcasting is required). Simulation results also show that our algorithm outperforms even in irregular-radio-signal environments.
  • According to the theoretical analysis and simulation results, the three constrained regions can indeed improve the localization accuracy.

ALGORITHM USED:

  • The HitBall Algorithm

 

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System :         Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.
  • Hard Disk           : 40 GB.
  • Floppy Drive : 44 Mb.
  • Monitor : 15 VGA Colour.
  • Mouse :
  • Ram : 512 Mb.

 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/7/LINUX.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Jen-Feng Huang, Guey-Yun Chang, and Gen-Huey Chen, “A Historical-Beacon-Aided Localization Algorithm for Mobile Sensor Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. 14, NO. 6, JUNE 2015.

ieee projects for cse 2015 with abstract and base paper

IEEE Projects for CSE /IT / ECE / EEE 2015 with Abstracts and Base papers

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DCIM: Distributed Cache Invalidation Method for Maintaining Cache Consistency in Wireless Mobile Networks

DCIM: Distributed Cache Invalidation Method for Maintaining Cache Consistency In Wireless Mobile Networks

ABSTRACT:

This paper proposes distributed cache invalidation mechanism (DCIM), a client-based cache consistency scheme that is implemented on top of a previously proposed architecture for caching data items in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), namely COACS, where special nodes cache the queries and the addresses of the nodes that store the responses to these queries. We have also previously proposed a server-based consistency scheme, named SSUM, whereas in this paper, we introduce DCIM that is totally client-based. DCIM is a pull-based algorithm that implements adaptive time to live (TTL), piggybacking, and prefetching, and provides near strong consistency capabilities. Cached data items are assigned adaptive TTL values that correspond to their update rates at the data source, where items with expired TTL values are grouped in validation requests to the data source to refresh them, whereas unexpired ones but with high request rates are prefetched from the server. In this paper, DCIM is analyzed to assess the delay and bandwidth gains (or costs) when compared to polling every time and push-based schemes. DCIM was also implemented using ns2, and compared against client-based and server-based schemes to assess its performance experimentally. The consistency ratio, delay, and overhead traffic are reported versus several variables, where DCIM showed to be superior when compared to the other systems.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

The cache consistency mechanisms in the literature can be grouped into three main categories: push based, pull based, and hybrid approaches. Push-based mechanisms are mostly server-based, where the server informs the caches about updates, whereas Pull-based approaches are client-based, where the client asks the server to update or validate its cached data. Finally, in hybrid mechanisms the server pushes the updates or the clients pull them

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The major issue that faces client cache management concerns the maintenance of data consistency between the cache client and the data source. All cache consistency algorithms seek to increase the probability of serving from the cache data items that are identical to those on the server.
  • However, achieving strong consistency, where cached items are identical to those on the server, requires costly communications with the server to validate (renew) cached items, considering the resource limited mobile devices and the wireless environments they operate in.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In this paper, we propose a pull-based algorithm that implements adaptive TTL, piggybacking, and prefetching, and provides near strong consistency guarantees. Cached data items are assigned adaptive TTL values that correspond to their update rates at the data source. Expired items as well as nonexpired ones but meet certain criteria are grouped in validation requests to the data source, which in turn sends the cache devices the actual items that have changed, or invalidates them, based on their request rates. This approach, which we call distributed cache invalidation mechanism (DCIM), works on top of the COACS cooperative caching architecture.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Ø TTL algorithms are popular due to their simplicity, sufficiently good performance, and flexibility to assign TTL values to individual data items.
  • Ø Also, they are attractive in mobile environments because of limited device energy and network bandwidth and frequent device disconnections.
  • Ø TTL algorithms are also completely client based and require minimal server functionality. From this perspective, TTL-based algorithms are more practical to deploy and are more scalable.
  • Ø This is the first complete client side approach employing adaptive TTL and achieving superior availability, delay, and traffic performance.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

Overview of DCIM basic design.

Interactions between nodes in a DCIM system.

ALGORITHMS USED:

ü Algorithm 1- Decision flow at the server.

ü Algorithm 2- Inner loop and outer loop (shaded part) functions.

Decision flow at the server.

Inner loop and outer loop (shaded part) functions.

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION:-

HARDWARE CONFIGURATION:-

ü Processor             –        Pentium –IV

ü Speed                             –        1.1 Ghz

ü RAM                    –        256 MB(min)

ü Hard Disk            –        20 GB

ü Key Board            –        Standard Windows Keyboard

ü Mouse                  –        Two or Three Button Mouse

ü Monitor                –        SVGA

 

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

v   Operating System          : LINUX

v   Tool                               : Network Simulator-2

v   Front End                      : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)

 

REFERENCE:

Kassem Fawaz, Student Member, IEEE, and Hassan Artail, Senior Member, IEEE-“DCIM: Distributed Cache Invalidation Method for Maintaining Cache Consistency in Wireless Mobile Networks”- IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING VOL. 12, NO. 4, APRIL 2013.

[youtube]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTFa-h_Zf18[/youtube]

BAHG: Back-Bone-Assisted Hop Greedy Routing for VANET’s City Environments

BAHG: Back-Bone-Assisted Hop Greedy Routing for VANET’s City Environments

ABSTRACT:

Using advanced wireless local area network technologies, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have become viable and valuable for their wide variety of novel applications, such as road safety, multimedia content sharing, commerce on wheels, etc. Multihop information dissemination in VANETs is constrained by the high mobility of vehicles and the frequent disconnections. Currently, geographic routing protocols are widely adopted for VANETs as they do not require route construction and route maintenance phases. Again, with connectivity awareness, they perform well in terms of reliable delivery. To obtain destination position, some protocols use flooding, which can be detrimental in city environments? Further, in the case of sparse and void regions, frequent use of the recovery strategy elevates hop count. Some geographic routing protocols adopt the minimum weighted algorithm based on distance or connectivity to select intermediate intersections. However, the shortest path or the path with higher connectivity may include numerous intermediate intersections. As a result, these protocols yield routing paths with higher hop count. In this paper, we propose a hop greedy routing scheme that yields a routing path with the minimum number of intermediate intersection nodes while taking connectivity into consideration. Moreover, we introduce back-bone nodes that play a key role in providing connectivity status around an intersection. Apart from this, by tracking the movement of source as well as destination, the back-bone nodes enable a packet to be forwarded in the changed direction. Simulation results signify the benefits of the proposed routing strategy in terms of high packet delivery ratio and shorter end-to-end delay.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

In a city network, intersections place a unique challenge to routing protocols. A routing protocol has to key on some parameters to decide the routing path. When the routing path is the shortest distance path, it may involve a very high number of change of directions, resulting in higher hop counts. If the connectivity is chosen as the parameter, the most connected road segment would be overcrowded by frequently routing data packets through the same path.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

    Apparently, the multi constrained optimal path finding problems are known to be NP-hard problems.

    The issues in a city network would not be exactly the same as in a highway or in a delay torrent network. The outskirts may have sparse vehicular density, whereas downtown has to deal with vehicular congestion.

 

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In this paper, we introduce a back-bone mechanism in which some specialized nodes perform functions such as tracking the movement of end nodes, detecting void regions on road segments, storing packets on unavailability of forwarding nodes, and selecting the most suitable intersection node as the forwarding node. Since the routing algorithm selects a path using destination position, we employ a unicast request-reply-based destination probing mechanism. To implement this approach, we divide the city into many zones that are outlined by the multilane road structures. Some dense intersections (identified as the meeting point of multiple road segments) on the boundary of the zones are chosen as the boundary intersections. As the position of each boundary intersection is known, the unicast request messages initiated by the source can be easily sent to each boundary intersection. The back-bone nodes stationed at boundary intersections then take the responsibility to spread the request messages within the respective zones. The fact that unicast packets do not provide burst traffic and is shielded by request to send/clear to send (RTS/CTS) handshake is the basic motivation to adopt unicast to carry out all control packet transmissions. Once the destination receives the request message, it finds a suitable path to the source and sends the reply. On receiving the reply message, the source forwards data on a routing path computed by the hop greedy routing algorithm. Finally, the routing protocol includes an update mechanism that takes care of inter-zone movement of end nodes.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

ü We have explored crucial problems such as unreliable location service, intersection node probing problem, etc., experienced by VANET routing protocols.

ü We then propose a hop greedy routing protocol that aims to reduce the end-to-end delay by yielding a routing path that includes the minimum number of intermediate intersections.

ü To address connectivity issues such as void regions and unavailability of forwarders, the concept of back-bone node is introduced.

ü We also propose an update procedure that is very effective to deal with destination movements.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

ü Processor             –        Pentium –III

ü Speed                             –         1.1 Ghz

ü RAM                    –        256 MB(min)

ü Hard Disk            –        20 GB

ü Key Board            –        Standard Windows Keyboard

ü Mouse                  –        Two or Three Button Mouse

ü Monitor                –        SVGA

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

v   Operating System          : LINUX

v   Tool                               : Network Simulator-2

v   Front End                      : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)

 

REFERENCE:

Pratap Kumar Sahu, Eric Hsiao-Kuang Wu,Member, IEEE, Jagruti Sahoo, and Mario Gerla “BAHG: Back-Bone-Assisted Hop Greedy Routing for VANET’s City Environments”- IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO. 1, MARCH2013.

[youtube]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1eTlgzpVS3E[/youtube]

Back-Pressure-Based Packet-by-Packet Adaptive Routing in Communication Networks

Back-Pressure-Based Packet-by-Packet Adaptive Routing in Communication Networks

 

ABSTRACT:

Back-pressure-based adaptive routing algorithms where each packet is routed along a possibly different path have been extensively studied in the literature. However, such algorithms typically result in poor delay performance and involve high implementation complexity. In this paper, we develop a new adaptive routing algorithm built upon the widely studied back-pressure algorithm. We decouple the routing and scheduling components of the algorithm by designing a probabilistic routing table that is used to route packets to per-destination queues. The scheduling decisions in the case of wireless networks are made using counters called shadow queues. The results are also extended to the case of networks that employ simple forms of network coding. In that case, our algorithm provides a low-complexity solution to optimally exploit the routing–coding tradeoff.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

The back-pressure algorithm introduced has been widely studied in the literature. While the ideas behind scheduling using the weights suggested in that paper have been successful in practice in base stations and routers, the adaptive routing algorithm is rarely used. The main reason for this is that the routing algorithm can lead to poor delay performance due to routing loops. Additionally, the implementation of the back-pressure algorithm requires each node to maintain per-destination queues that can be burdensome for a wire line or wireless router.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

In an existing algorithms typically result in poor delay performance and involve high implementation complexity.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

The main purpose of this paper is to study if the shadow queue approach extends to the case of scheduling and routing. The first contribution is to come up with a formulation where the number of hops is minimized. It is interesting to contrast this contribution. The formulation has the same objective as ours, but their solution involves per-hop queues, which dramatically increases the number of queues, even compared to the back-pressure algorithm. Our solution is significantly different: We use the same number of shadow queues as the back-pressure algorithm, but the number of real queues is very small (per neighbor). The new idea here is to perform routing via probabilistic splitting, which allows the dramatic reduction in the number of real queues. Finally, an important observation in this paper, not found is that the partial ”decoupling” of shadow back-pressure and real packet transmission allows us to activate more links than a regular back-pressure algorithm would. This idea appears to be essential to reduce delays in the routing case, as shown in the simulations.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Our adaptive routing algorithm can be modified to automatically realize this tradeoff with good delay performance.

The routing algorithm is designed to minimize the average number of hops used by packets in the network. This idea, along with the scheduling/routing decoupling, leads to delay reduction compared with the traditional back-pressure algorithm.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

ü Processor             –        Pentium –III

ü Speed                             –         1.1 Ghz

ü RAM                    –        256 MB(min)

ü Hard Disk            –        20 GB

ü Key Board            –        Standard Windows Keyboard

ü Mouse                  –        Two or Three Button Mouse

ü Monitor                –        SVGA

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

v   Operating System          : LINUX

v   Tool                               : Network Simulator-2

v   Front End                      : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)

 

REFERENCE:

Eleftheria Athanasopoulou, Member, IEEE,LocX.Bui, Associate Member, IEEE, Tianxiong Ji, Member, IEEE, R. Srikant, Fellow, IEEE, and Alexander Stolyar “Back-Pressure-Based Packet-by-Packet Adaptive Routing in Communication Networks”- IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 21, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2013.

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bL_FKaQFAXc[/youtube]

An Efficient and Robust Addressing Protocol for Node Auto-configuration in Ad Hoc Networks

An Efficient and Robust Addressing Protocol for Node Autoconfiguration in Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Address assignment is a key challenge in ad hoc networks due to the lack of infrastructure. Autonomous addressing protocols require a distributed and self-managed mechanism to avoid address collisions in a dynamic network with fading channels, frequent partitions, and joining/leaving nodes. We propose and analyze a lightweight protocol that configures mobile ad hoc nodes based on a distributed address database stored in filters that reduces the control load and makes the proposal robust to packet losses and network partitions. We evaluate the performance of our protocol, considering joining nodes, partition merging events, and network initialization. Simulation results show that our protocol resolves all the address collisions and also reduces the control traffic when compared to previously proposed protocols.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

As other wireless networks, ad hoc nodes also need a unique network address to enable multihop routing and full connectivity. Address assignment in ad hoc networks, however, is even more challenging due to the self-organized nature of these environments. Centralized mechanisms, such as the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) or the Network Address Translation (NAT), conflict with the distributed nature of ad hoc networks and do not address network partitioning and merging.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

The lack of servers hinders the use of centralized addressing schemes in ad hoc networks.

Does not take into account network partitions and is not suitable for ad hoc networks.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In this paper, we propose and analyze an efficient approach called Filter-based Addressing Protocol (FAP)

The proposed protocol maintains a distributed database stored in filters containing the currently allocated addresses in a compact fashion.We consider both the Bloom filter and a proposed filter, called Sequence filter, to design a filter-based protocol that assures both the univocal address configuration of the nodes joining the network and the detection of address collisions after merging partitions.

We also propose to use the hash of this filter as a partition identifier, providing an important feature for an easy detection of network partitions. Hence, we introduce the filters to store the allocated addresses without incurring in high storage overhead.

Our proposal aims to reduce the control load and to improve partition merging detections without requiring high storage capacity. These objectives are achieved through small filters and an accurate distributed mechanism to update the states in nodes. Furthermore, we propose the use of the filter signature (i.e., a hash of the filter) as a partition identifier instead of random numbers. The filter signature represents the set of all the nodes within the partition. Therefore, if the set of assigned addresses changes, the filter signature also changes. Actually, when using random numbers to identify the partition instead of hash of the filter, the identifier does not change with the set of assigned addresses. Therefore, filter signatures improves the ability to correctly detect and merge partitions.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Our filter-based approach simplifies the univocal address allocation and the detection of address collisions because every node can easily check whether an address is already assigned or not.

The filters are distributed maintained by exchanging the hash of the filters among neighbors. This allows nodes to detect with a small control overhead neighbors using different filters, which could cause address collisions. Hence, our proposal is a robust addressing scheme because it guarantees that all nodes share the same allocated list.

Analysis and simulation experiments show that FAP achieves low communication overhead and low latency, resolving all address collisions even in network partition merging events. These results are mainly correlated to the use of filters because they reduce the number of tries to allocate an address to a joining node, as well as they reduce the number of false positives in the partition merging events, when compared to other proposals, which reduces message overhead.

CHALENGES:

A crucial and usually unaddressed issue of ad hoc networks is the frequent network partitions.

As other wireless networks, ad hoc nodes also need a unique network address to enable multihop routing and full connectivity.

 Address assignment in ad hoc networks, however, is even more challenging due to the self-organized nature of these environments.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

ü Processor             –        Pentium –III

ü Speed                             –         1.1 Ghz

ü RAM                    –        256 MB(min)

ü Hard Disk            –        20 GB

ü Key Board            –        Standard Windows Keyboard

ü Mouse                  –        Two or Three Button Mouse

ü Monitor                –        SVGA

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

v   Operating System          : LINUX

v   Tool                               : Network Simulator-2

v   Front End                      :O TCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)

 

REFERENCE:

Natalia Castro Fernandes, Marcelo Duffles Donato Moreira, and Otto Carlos Muniz Bandeira Duarte, “An Efficient and Robust Addressing Protocol for Node Autoconfiguration in Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2013.

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USKxBsXhifo[/youtube]

ALERT: An Anonymous Location-Based Efficient Routing Protocol in MANETs

ALERT: An Anonymous Location-Based Efficient Routing Protocol in MANETs

ABSTRACT:

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) use anonymous routing protocols that hide node identities and/or routes from outside observers in order to provide anonymity protection. However, existing anonymous routing protocols relying on either hop-by-hop encryption or redundant traffic either generate high cost or cannot provide full anonymity protection to data sources, destinations, and routes. The high cost exacerbates the inherent resource constraint problem in MANETs especially in multimedia wireless applications. To offer high anonymity protection at a low cost, we propose an Anonymous Location-based Efficient Routing protocol (ALERT). ALERT dynamically partitions the network field into zones and randomly chooses nodes in zones as intermediate relay nodes, which form a nontraceable anonymous route. In addition, it hides the data initiator/receiver among many initiators/receivers to strengthen source and destination anonymity protection. Thus, ALERT offers anonymity protection to sources, destinations, and routes. It also has strategies to effectively counter intersection and timing attacks. We theoretically analyze ALERT in terms of anonymity and efficiency. Experimental results exhibit consistency with the theoretical analysis, and show that ALERT achieves better route anonymity protection and lower cost compared to other anonymous routing protocols. Also, ALERT achieves comparable routing efficiency to the GPSR geographical routing protocol.

 

 

EXISTING SYSTEM:

Anonymous routing protocols are crucial in MANETs to provide secure communications by hiding node identities and preventing traffic analysis attacks from outside observers. Anonymity in MANETs includes identity and location anonymity of data sources (i.e., senders) and destinations (i.e., recipients), as well as route anonymity. “Identity and location anonymity of sources and destinations” means it is hard if possible for other nodes to obtain the real identities and exact locations of the sources and destinations. For route anonymity, adversaries, either enroute or out of the route, cannot trace a packet flow back to its source or destination, and no node have information about the real identities and locations of intermediate nodes enroute. Also, in order to dissociate the relationship between source and destination (i.e., relationship unobservability, it is important to form an anonymous path between the two endpoints and ensure that nodes en route do not know where the endpoints are, especially in MANETs where location devices may be equipped.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Ø The current approaches are limited by focusing on enforcing anonymity at a heavy cost to precious resources because public-key-based encryption and high traffic generate significantly high cost.
  • Ø Many approaches cannot provide all of the aforementioned anonymity protections
  • Ø ALARM cannot protect the location anonymity of source and destination, SDDR cannot provide route anonymity, and ZAP only focuses on destination anonymity
  • Ø Existing anonymous routing protocols generate a significantly high cost, which exacerbates the resource constraint problem in MANETs. In a MANET employing a high-cost anonymous routing in a battlefield, a low quality of service in voice and video data transmission due to depleted resources may lead to disastrous delay in military operations.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In order to provide high anonymity protection (for sources, destination, and route) with low cost, we propose an Anonymous Location-based and Efficient Routing proTocol (ALERT). ALERT dynamically partitions a network field into zones and randomly chooses nodes in zones as intermediate relay nodes, which form a nontraceable anonymous route. Specifically, in each routing step, a data sender or forwarder partitions the network field in order to separate itself and the destination into two zones. It then randomly chooses a node in the other zone as the next relay node and uses the GPSR algorithm to send the data to the relay node. In the last step, the data is broadcasted to k nodes in the destination zone, providing k-anonymity to the destination. In addition, ALERT has a strategy to hide the data initiator among a number of initiators to strengthen the anonymity protection of the source. ALERT is also resilient to intersection attacks and timing attacks. We theoretically analyzed ALERT in terms of anonymity and efficiency. We also conducted experiments to evaluate the performance of ALERT in comparison with other anonymity and geographic routing protocols.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Ø ALERT provides route anonymity, identity, and location anonymity of source and destination
  • Ø Rather than relying on hop-by-hop encryption and redundant traffic, ALERT mainly uses randomized routing of one message copy to provide anonymity protection.
  • Ø ALERT can also avoid timing attacks because of its nonfixed routing paths for a source destination pair.
  • Ø We conducted comprehensive experiments to evaluate ALERT’s performance in comparison with other anonymous protocols

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System        :  Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.
  • Hard Disk   : 40 GB.
  • Monitor      : 15 inch VGA Colour.
  • Mouse         : Logitech Mouse.
  • Ram            : 512 MB
  • Keyboard    : Standard Keyboard

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

v   Operating System          : LINUX

v   Tool                               : Network Simulator-2

v   Front End                      : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)

 

REFERENCE:

Haiying Shen,Member, IEEE, and Lianyu Zhao, Student Member, IEEE “ALERT: An Anonymous Location-Based Efficient Routing Protocol in MANETs”- IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. 12, NO. 6, JUNE 2013.

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ILbNoTu_sWE[/youtube]

Adaptive Position Update for Geographic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Adaptive Position Update for Geographic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

In geographic routing, nodes need to maintain up-to-date positions of their immediate neighbors for making effective forwarding decisions. Periodic broadcasting of beacon packets that contain the geographic location coordinates of the nodes is a popular method used by most geographic routing protocols to maintain neighbor positions. We contend and demonstrate that periodic beaconing regardless of the node mobility and traffic patterns in the network is not attractive from both update cost and routing performance points of view. We propose the Adaptive Position Update (APU) strategy for geographic routing, which dynamically adjusts the frequency of position updates based on the mobility dynamics of the nodes and the forwarding patterns in the network. APU is based on two simple principles: 1) nodes whose movements are harder to predict update their positions more frequently (and vice versa), and (ii) nodes closer to forwarding paths update their positions more frequently (and vice versa). Our theoretical analysis, which is validated by NS2 simulations of a well-known geographic routing protocol, Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol (GPSR), shows that APU can significantly reduce the update cost and improve the routing performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in comparison with periodic beaconing and other recently proposed updating schemes. The benefits of APU are further confirmed by undertaking evaluations in realistic network scenarios, which account for localization error, realistic radio propagation, and sparse network

 

EXISTING SYSTEM:

In geographic routing, the forwarding decision at each node is based on the locations of the node’s one-hop neighbors and location of the packet destination as well. A forwarding nodes therefore needs to maintain these two types of locations. Many works, e.g., GLS, Quorum System, have been proposed to discover and maintain the location of destination. However, the maintenance of one-hop neighbors’ location has been often neglected. Some geographic routing schemes, simply assume that a forwarding node knows the location of its neighbors. While others use periodical beacon broadcasting to exchange neighbors’ locations.

In the periodic beaconing scheme, each node broadcasts a beacon with a fixed beacon interval. If a node does not hear any beacon from a neighbor for a certain time interval, called neighbor time-out interval, the node considers this neighbor has moved out of the radio range and removes the outdated neighbor from its neighbor list. The neighbor time-out interval often is multiple times of the beacon interval.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

Position updates are costly in many ways.

Each update consumes node energy, wireless bandwidth, and increases the risk of packet collision at the medium access control (MAC) layer.

Packet collisions cause packet loss which in turn affects the routing performance due to decreased accuracy in determining the correct local topology (a lost beacon broadcast is not retransmitted).

A lost data packet does get retransmitted, but at the expense of increased end-to-end delay. Clearly, given the cost associated with transmitting beacons, it makes sense to adapt the frequency of beacon updates to the node mobility and the traffic conditions within the network, rather than employing a static periodic update policy.

 For example, if certain nodes are frequently changing their mobility characteristics (speed and/or heading), it makes sense to frequently broadcast their updated position. However, for nodes that do not exhibit significant dynamism, periodic broadcasting of beacons is wasteful. Further, if only a small percentage of the nodes are involved in forwarding packets, it is unnecessary for nodes which are located far away from the forwarding path to employ periodic beaconing because these updates are not useful for forwarding the current traffic.

 

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

In this paper, we propose a novel beaconing strategy for geographic routing protocols called Adaptive Position Updates strategy (APU).

APU incorporates two rules for triggering the beacon update process. The first rule, referred as Mobility Prediction (MP), uses a simple mobility prediction scheme to estimate when the location information broadcast in the previous beacon becomes inaccurate. The next beacon is broadcast only if the predicted error in the location estimate is greater than a certain threshold, thus tuning the update frequency to the dynamism inherent in the node’s motion.

The second rule, referred as On-Demand Learning (ODL), aims at improving the accuracy of the topology along the routing paths between the communicating nodes. ODL uses an on-demand learning strategy, whereby a node broadcasts beacons when it overhears the transmission of a data packet from a new neighbor in its vicinity. This ensures that nodes involved in forwarding data packets maintain a more up-to date view of the local topology. On the contrary, nodes that are not in the vicinity of the forwarding path are unaffected by this rule and do not broadcast beacons very frequently.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Our scheme eliminates the drawbacks of periodic beaconing by adapting to the system variations.

The simulation results show that APU can adapt to mobility and traffic load well. For each dynamic case, APU generates less or similar amount of beacon overhead as other beaconing schemes but achieve better performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and energy consumption. In the second set of simulations, we evaluate the performance of APU under the consideration of several real-world effects such as a realistic radio propagation model and localization errors.

The extensive simulation results confirm the superiority of our proposed scheme over other schemes. The main reason for all these improvements in APU is that beacons generated in APU are more concentrated along the routing paths, while the beacons in all other schemes are more scattered in the whole network. As a result, in APU, the nodes located in the hotspots, which are responsible for forwarding most of the data traffic in the network have an up-to-date view of their local topology, thus resulting in improved performance.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System        :  Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.
  • Hard Disk   : 40 GB.
  • Monitor      : 15 inch VGA Colour.
  • Mouse         : Logitech Mouse.
  • Ram            : 512 MB
  • Keyboard    : Standard Keyboard

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

v   Operating System          : LINUX

v   Tool                               : Network Simulator-2

v   Front End                      : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)

 

REFERENCE:

Quanjun Chen,Member, IEEE, Salil S. Kanhere, Senior Member, IEEE, and Mahbub Hassan,Senior Member, IEEE “Adaptive Position Update for Geographic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”- IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. 12, NO. 3, MARCH 2013.

[youtube]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3h01Srr0c8c[/youtube]

A Rank Correlation Based Detection against Distributed Reflection DoS Attacks

A Rank Correlation Based Detection against Distributed Reflection DoS Attacks

ABSTRACT:

DDoS presents a serious threat to the Internet since its inception, where lots of controlled hosts flood the victim site with massive packets. Moreover, in Distributed Reflection DoS (DRDoS), attackers fool innocent servers (reflectors) into flushing packets to the victim. But most of current DRDoS detection mechanisms are associated with specific protocols and cannot be used for unknown protocols. It is found that because of being stimulated by the same attacking flow, the responsive flows from reflectors have inherent relations: the packet rate of one converged responsive flow may have linear relationships with another. Based on this observation, the Rank Correlation based Detection (RCD) algorithm is proposed. The preliminary simulations indicate that RCD can differentiate reflection flows from legitimate ones efficiently and effectively, thus can be used as a useable indicator for DRDoS.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

There have been some packet-level defense methods. Filtering all incoming response packets, which is of low cost, will result in no general access to the remote server. Inspecting packet content and tracking protocol status maybe helpful, but need a lot of computation which is also vulnerable to attacks. Along with more protocols being exploited to launch DRDoS, countermeasures must consider a list of possible protocols with each one treated specifically, and the list needs to be updated in time. So we urgently expect some protocol independent methods to help detecting most kinds of DRDoS.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

We investigate the basic traffic pattern introduced near the victim under DRDoS, and propose a general detection method: the Rank Correlation based Detection (RCD). RCD is protocol independent and its computation cost is not affected by network throughput. In RCD, once an attack alarm rises, upstream routers will sample and test rank correlation of suspicious flows and use the correlation value for further detection. Correlation has been successfully used in DDoS detection, e.g., correlation coefficient has been successfully employed to discriminate DDoS attacks from flash crowds. As we know, it is the first time that DRDoS is analyzed and detected using correlation.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

The preliminary simulations indicate that RCD can differentiate reflection flows from legitimate ones efficiently and effectively, thus can be used as a useable indicator for DRDoS.

ALGORITHM USED:

Spearman’s Rank Correlation

The well-known Pearson’s correlation coefficient is suitable for describing the linear relationship. However, due to the background traffic and delay, the linearity may not be obvious. And Pearson’s correlation is sensitive to outliers introduced by traffic bursts. Through experimental comparisons, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (Spearman’s rho) is more suitable for detection, where a raw value is converted to a ranked value and then Pearson’s correlation is applied. For a given value, its ranked value is the average of its position(s) in the ascending order of all values.

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION:-

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

ü Processor                  –        Pentium –IV

ü Speed                        –        1.1 Ghz

ü RAM                         –        512 MB(min)

ü Hard Disk                 –        40 GB

ü Key Board                –        Standard Windows Keyboard

ü Mouse                       –        Two or Three Button Mouse

ü Monitor                     –        LCD/LED

 

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:-

v   Operating System          : LINUX

v   Tool                               : Network Simulator-2

v   Front End                      : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)

REFERENCE:

 

Wei Wei, Feng Chen, Yingjie Xia, and Guang Jin, “A Rank Correlation Based Detection against Distributed Reflection DoS Attacks”, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013

[youtube]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjLlYdxr_rA[/youtube]