Optimized Search-and-Compute Circuits and Their Application to Query Evaluation on Encrypted Data

Optimized Search-and-Compute Circuits and Their Application to Query Evaluation on Encrypted Data

Optimized Search-and-Compute Circuits and Their Application to Query Evaluation on Encrypted Data

ABSTRACT:

Private query processing on encrypted databases allows users to obtain data from encrypted databases in such a way that the users’ sensitive data will be protected from exposure. Given an encrypted database, users typically submit queries similar to the following examples: 1) How many employees in an organization make over U.S. $100 000? 2) What is the average age of factory workers suffering from leukemia? Answering the questions requires one to search and then compute over the relevant encrypted data sets in sequence. In this paper, we are interested in efficiently processing queries that require both operations to be performed on fully encrypted databases. One immediate solution is to use several special-purpose encryption schemes simultaneously; however, this approach is associated with a high computational cost for maintaining multiple encryption contexts. Another solution is to use a privacy homomorphic scheme. However, no secure solutions have been developed that satisfy the efficiency requirements. In this paper, we construct a unified framework to efficiently and privately process queries with search and compute operations. For this purpose, the first part of our work involves devising several underlying circuits as primitives for queries on encrypted data. Second, we apply two optimization techniques to improve the efficiency of these circuit primitives. One technique involves exploiting single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) techniques to accelerate the basic circuit operations. Unlike general SIMD approaches, our SIMD implementation can be applied even to a single basic operation. The other technique is to use a large integer ring (e.g., Z2t) as a message space rather than a binary field. Even for an integer of k bits with k > t , addition can be performed using degree 1 circuits with lazy carry operations. Finally, we present various experiments performed by varying the considered parameters, such as the query type and the number of tuples.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Ada Popa et al. proposed CryptDB and its extension, which can process general types of database queries using layers of different encryption schemes: deterministic encryption for equality condition queries, order preserving encryption (OPE) for range queries, and HE for aggregate queries.
  • TrustedDB has achieved the desired goal, but it requires a secure co-processor for processing on sensitive data.
  • Hacigümüs et al.attempted to support general DB queries in a private manner.
  • Hore et al. claimed that their schemes could support range queries while maintaining privacy. However, they were later found to reveal the underlying data distributions.
  • Tu et al. proposed an enhanced variant of CryptDB on the practical side, called Monomi. Their solution introduces some elaborate techniques for achieving better performance

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Although the use of Gentry’s scheme and other fully homomorphic encryption (HE) schemes theoretically allows for the secure evaluation of any function, the evaluation cost is still far from being practical for many functions.
  • The disadvantage of the existing work is that in the long run, its privacy degrades to the lowest level of data privacy provided by the weakest encryption scheme.
  • No solutions exist for expressing and processing various queries on fully encrypted databases in an efficient

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this system, we provide a common platform to allow database users to work on a single underlying cryptosystem, to represent their queries as functions in a conceptually simple manner, and to efficiently perform these functions on fully encrypted databases.
  • The foundation of our simple framework is a set of optimized circuits for the following operations: equality, greater-than comparison and integer addition. We call these operations circuit primitives.
  • Our optimizations of circuit primitives are developed such that they minimize the circuit depth and the number of homomorphic operations. For this purpose, we make extensive use of single-instruction multiple- data (SIMD) techniques to move data across plaintext slots. In general, SIMD technology allows basic operations to be performed on several data elements in parallel. In contrast, our proposal operates on packed ciphertexts of several data elements and thus enables the efficiency of the basic operations of the circuit primitives to be improved.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • The proposed system expresses more complicated queries using a combination of the optimized circuit primitives. The resulting query functions are conceptually simpler than other representations of database queries and are compact in the sense that retrieval queries require.
  • We perform comprehensive experiments to evaluate the performance of various queries expressed using our techniques from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.
  • We perform comprehensive experiments to evaluate the performance of various queries expressed using our techniques from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.
  • We present various types of experiments on different sets of possible DB queries by not only combining fine-tuned circuits but also by varying the parameters, such as the number of plaintext slots and the bit length of the plaintext space.
  • To process a search-and compute query with the avg aggregate function, it is sufficient to compute multiple search-and-sum queries because an average can then be obtained by applying one division after decryption.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

optimized-search-and-compute-circuits-and-their-application

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool : Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database : MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Jung Hee Cheon, Miran Kim, and Myungsun Kim, “Optimized Search-and-Compute Circuits and Their Application to Query Evaluation on Encrypted Data”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 11, NO. 1, JANUARY 2016.

Hidden Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Under Standard Assumptions

Hidden Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Under Standard Assumptions

Hidden Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Under Standard Assumptions

Hidden Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Under Standard Assumptions

ABSTRACT:

We propose two new ciphertext policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE) schemes where the access policy is defined by AND-gate with wildcard. In the first scheme, we present a new technique that uses only one group element to represent an attribute, while the existing ABE schemes of the same type need to use three different group elements to represent an attribute for the three possible values (namely, positive, negative, and wildcard). Our new technique leads to a new CP-ABE scheme with constant ciphertext size, which, however, cannot hide the access policy used for encryption. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new CP-ABE scheme with the property of hidden access policy by extending the technique we used in the construction of our first scheme. In particular, we show a way to bridge ABE based on AND-gate with wildcard with inner product encryption and then use the latter to achieve the goal of hidden access policy. We prove that our second scheme is secure under the standard decisional linear and decisional bilinear Diffie–Hellman assumptions.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • In a CP-ABE, the user’s attributes used for key generation must satisfy the access policy used for encryption in order to decrypt the ciphertext, while in a KP-ABE, the user can only decrypt ciphertexts whose attributes satisfy the policy embedded in the key. We can see that access control is an inherent feature of ABE, and by using some expressive access structures, we can effectively achieve fine-grained access control.
  • The fuzzy IBE given by Sahai and Waters, which can be treated as the first KP-ABE, used a specific threshold access policy.
  • Later, the Linear Secret Sharing Scheme (LSSS) realizable (or monotone) access structure has been adopted by many subsequent ABE schemes.
  • Cheung and Newport proposed another way to define access structure using AND-Gate with wildcard. Cheung and Newport showed that by using this simple access structure, which is sufficient for many applications, CP-ABE schemes can be constructed based on standard complexity assumptions.
  • Subsequently, several ABE schemes were proposed following this specific access structure.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The existing ABE schemes based on AND-Gate with wildcard cannot achieve this property.
  • ABE can well protect the secrecy of the encrypted data against unauthorised access, it does not protect the privacy of the receivers/decryptors by default. That is, given the ciphertext, an unauthorised user may still be able to obtain some information of the data recipients.
  • Although a secure ABE can well protect the secrecy of the encrypted data against unauthorised access, it does not protect the privacy of the receivers/decryptors by default. That is, given the ciphertext, an unauthorised user may still be able to obtain some information of the data recipients. For example, a health organization wants to send a message to all the patients that carry certain diseases. Then the attribute universe will contain all the diseases, and an access policy will have the format “++−∗∗+. . .” where “+” (“−”) indicates positive (negative) for a particular disease.
  • If a CP-ABE cannot hide the access policy, then from the fact whether a person can decrypt the message or not, people can directly learn some sensitive information of the user. Therefore, it is also very important to hide the access policy in such applications. However, most of the existing ABE schemes based on AND-Gate with wildcard cannot achieve this property.

 

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this work, we explore new techniques for the construction of CP-ABE schemes based on the AND-gate with wildcard access structure. The existing schemes of this type need to use three different elements to represent the three possible values – positive, negative, and wildcard – of an attribute in the access structure.
  • In this paper, we propose a new construction which uses only one element to represent one attribute. The main idea behind our construction is to use the “positions” of different symbols to perform the matching between the access policy and user attributes.
  • Specifically, we put the indices of all the positive, negative and wildcard attributes defined in an access structure into three sets, and by using the technique of Viète’s formulas, we allow the decryptor to remove all the wildcard positions, and perform the decryption correctly if and only if the remaining user attributes match those defined in the access structure.
  • We further study the problem of hiding the access policy for CP-ABE based on AND-Gate with wildcard. As the main contribution of this work, we extend the technique we have used in the first construction to bridge ABE based on AND-Gate with wildcard with Inner Product Encryption (IPE).
  • Specifically, we present a way to convert an access policy containing positive, negative, and wildcard symbols into a vector _X which is used for encryption, and the user’s attributes containing positive and negative symbols into another vector _ Y which is used in key generation, and then apply the technique of IPE to do the encryption.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Our new technique leads to a new CP-ABE scheme with constant ciphertext size.
  • The system have used in the first construction to bridge ABE based on AND-Gate with wildcard with Inner Product Encryption (IPE).
  • Our first scheme achieves constant ciphertext size.
  • Secure under the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman and the Decision Linear assumptions.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

hidden-ciphertext-policy-attribute-based-encryption

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

 

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool : Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database : MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Tran Viet Xuan Phuong, Guomin Yang, Member, IEEE, and Willy Susilo, Senior Member, IEEE, “Hidden Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Under Standard Assumptions”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 11, NO. 1, JANUARY 2016.

Resolving Multi-party Privacy Conflicts in Social Media

Resolving Multi-party Privacy Conflicts in Social Media

Resolving Multi-party Privacy Conflicts in Social Media

ABSTRACT:

Items shared through Social Media may affect more than one user’s privacy — e.g., photos that depict multiple users, comments that mention multiple users, events in which multiple users are invited, etc. The lack of multi-party privacy management support in current mainstream Social Media infrastructures makes users unable to appropriately control to whom these items are actually shared or not. Computational mechanisms that are able to merge the privacy preferences of multiple users into a single policy for an item can help solve this problem. However, merging multiple users’ privacy preferences is not an easy task, because privacy preferences may conflict, so methods to resolve conflicts are needed. Moreover, these methods need to consider how users’ would actually reach an agreement about a solution to the conflict in order to propose solutions that can be acceptable by all of the users affected by the item to be shared. Current approaches are either too demanding or only consider fixed ways of aggregating privacy preferences. In this paper, we propose the first computational mechanism to resolve conflicts for multi-party privacy management in Social Media that is able to adapt to different situations by modelling the concessions that users make to reach a solution to the conflicts. We also present results of a user study in which our proposed mechanism outperformed other existing approaches in terms of how many times each approach matched users’ behaviour.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Very recent related literature proposed mechanisms to resolve multi-party privacy conflicts in social media.
  • Some of them need too much human intervention during the conflict resolution process, by requiring users to solve the conflicts manually or close to manually; e.g., participating in difficult-to comprehend auctions for each and every co-owned item.
  • Other approaches to resolve multi-party privacy conflicts are more automated, but they only consider one fixed way of aggregating user’s privacy preferences (e.g., veto voting) without considering how users would actually achieve compromise and the concessions they might be willing to make to achieve it depending on the specific situation.
  • Only considers more than one way of aggregating users’ privacy preferences, but the user that uploads the item chooses the aggregation method to be applied, which becomes a unilateral decision without considering the preferences of the others.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Computational mechanisms that can automate the negotiation process have been identified as one of the biggest gaps in privacy management in social media.
  • The main challenge is to propose solutions that can be accepted most of the time by all the users involved in an item (e.g., all users depicted in a photo), so that users are forced to negotiate manually as little as possible, thus minimising the burden on the user to resolve multi-party privacy conflicts.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, we present the first computational mechanism for social media that, given the individual privacy preferences of each user involved in an item, is able to find and resolve conflicts by applying a different conflict resolution method based on the concessions users’ may be willing to make in different situations.
  • The mediator inspects the individual privacy policies of all users for the item and flags all the conflicts found. Basically, it looks at whether individual privacy policies suggest contradictory access control decisions for the same target user. If conflicts are found the item is not shared preventively.
  • The mediator proposes a solution for each conflict found. To this aim, the mediator estimates how willing each negotiating user may be to concede by considering: her individual privacy preferences, how sensitive the particular item is for her, and the relative importance of the conflicting target users for her.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • The use of a mediator that detects conflicts and suggests a possible solution to them.
  • Works as an interface to the privacy controls of the underlying Social Media infrastructure
  • We also present a user study comparing our computational mechanism of conflict resolution and other previous approaches to what users would do themselves manually in a number of situations.
  • The results obtained suggest our proposed mechanism significantly outperformed other previously proposed approaches in terms of the number of times it matched participants’ behaviour in the study.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

resolving-multi-party-privacy-conflicts-in-social-media

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool :         Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database : MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Jose M. Such, Member, IEEE, Natalia Criado, “Resolving Multi-party Privacy Conflicts in Social Media”, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2016.

Inference Attack on Browsing History of Twitter Users using Public Click Analytics and Twitter Metadata

Inference Attack on Browsing History of Twitter Users using Public Click Analytics and Twitter Metadata

Inference Attack on Browsing History of Twitter Users using Public Click Analytics and Twitter Metadata

ABSTRACT:

Twitter is a popular online social network service for sharing short messages (tweets) among friends. Its users frequently use URL shortening services that provide (i) a short alias of a long URL for sharing it via tweets and (ii) public click analytics of shortened URLs. The public click analytics is provided in an aggregated form to preserve the privacy of individual users. In this paper, we propose practical attack techniques inferring who clicks which shortened URLs on Twitter using the combination of public information: Twitter metadata and public click analytics. Unlike the conventional browser history stealing attacks, our attacks only demand publicly available information provided by Twitter and URL shortening services. Evaluation results show that our attack can compromise Twitter users’ privacy with high accuracy.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Some researchers propose attack methods to steal browsing history using user interactions and side-channels.
  • Weinberg et al. exploit CAPTCHA to deceive users and to induce user’s interaction. They also use a webcam to detect the light of the screen reflected at the user’s face, which can be used to distinguish the colors of visited from those of unvisited links.
  • He et al. and Lindamood et al. build a Bayesian network to predict undisclosed personal attributes.
  • Zheleva and Getoor show how an attacker can exploit a mixture of private and public data to predict private attributes of a target user.
  • Similarly, Mnislove et al. infer the attributes of a target user by using a combination of attributes of the user’s friends and other users who are loosely (not directly) connected to the target user.
  • Calandrino et al. propose algorithms inferring customer’s transactions in the recommender systems, such as Amazon and Hunch.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Previous studies have considered attack techniques that cause privacy leaks in social networks, such as inferring private attributes and de-anonymizing users.
  • Most of them combine public information from several different data sets to infer hidden information.
  • Need complicated techniques or assumptions

 

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, we propose novel attack methods for inferring whether a specific user clicked on certain shortened URLs on Twitter.
  • Our attacks rely on the combination of publicly available information: click analytics from URL shortening services and metadata from Twitter.
  • The goal of the attacks is to know which URLs are clicked on by target users. We introduce two different attack methods: (i) an attack to know who click on the URLs updated by target users and (ii) an attack to know which URLs are clicked on by target users.
  • To perform the first attack, we find a number of Twitter users who frequently distribute shortened URLs, and investigate the click analytics of the distributed shortened URLs and the metadata of the followers of the Twitter users.
  • To perform the second attack, we create monitoring accounts that monitor messages from all followings of target users to collect all shortened URLs that the target users may click on. We then monitor the click analytics of those shortened URLs and compare them with the metadata of the target user.
  • Furthermore, we propose an advanced attack method to reduce attack overhead while increasing inference accuracy using the time model of target users, representing when the target users frequently use Twitter.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Evaluation results show that our attacks can successfully infer the click information with high accuracy and low overhead.
  • We propose novel attack techniques to determine whether a specific user clicks on certain shortened URLs on Twitter.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that infers URL visiting history on Twitter.
  • We only use public information provided by URL shortening services and Twitter (i.e., click analytics and Twitter metadata).
  • We determine whether a target user visits a shortened URL by correlating the publicly available information.
  • Our approach does not need complicated techniques or assumptions such as script injection, phishing, malware intrusion, or DNS monitoring. All we need is publicly available information.
  • We further decrease attack overhead while increasing accuracy by considering target users’ time models. It can increase the practicality of our attacks so that we demand immediate countermeasures.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

Inference Attack on Browsing History of Twitter Users

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

 

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool : Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database : MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Jonghyuk Song, Nonmember, IEEE, Sangho Lee, Member, IEEE, and Jong Kim, Member, IEEE, “Inference Attack on Browsing History of Twitter Users using Public Click Analytics and Twitter Metadata”, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 2016.

Secure Overlay Routing Using Key Pre-Distribution: A Linear Distance Optimization Approach

Secure Overlay Routing Using Key Pre-Distribution: A Linear Distance Optimization Approach

Secure Overlay Routing Using Key Pre-Distribution: A Linear Distance Optimization Approach

ABSTRACT:

Key pre-distribution algorithms have recently emerged as efficient alternatives of key management in today’s secure communications landscape. Secure routing techniques using key pre-distribution algorithms require special algorithms capable of finding optimal secure overlay paths. To the best of our knowledge, the literature of key pre-distribution systems is still facing a major void in proposing optimal overlay routing algorithms. In the literature work, traditional routing algorithms are typically used twice to find a NETWORK layer path from the source node to the destination and then to find required cryptographic paths. In this paper, we model the problem of secure routing using weighted directed graphs and propose a boolean linear programming (LP) problem to find the optimal path. Albeit the fact that the solutions to boolean LP problems are of much higher complexities, we propose a method for solving our problem in polynomial time. In order to evaluate its performance and security measures, we apply our proposed algorithm to a number of recently proposed symmetric and asymmetric key pre-distribution methods. The results show that our proposed algorithm offers great network performance improvements as well as security enhancements when augmenting baseline techniques.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Most of the key pre-distribution schemes choose the keys randomly but there are several others that attempt at choosing keys in smarter ways.
  • Key pre-distribution schemes are categorized into deterministic and probabilistic algorithms. In both categories, each network node is pre-loaded with several keys chosen from a key pool in the initialization phase.
  • Choi, Zhu, C¸ amtepe, and Ruj propose different deterministic key pre-distribution schemes.
  • Eschenauer and Gligor propose the first probabilistic key pre-distribution algorithm in which each pair of neighboring nodes have a common key with a specific probability.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Deterministic key pre-distribution schemes are not scalable and need a rather large storage space.
  • The main disadvantage of the basic probabilistic key pre-distribution is that if an attacker compromises several nodes, many links may be potentially rendered insecure.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • The main contribution of this paper is proposing a secure routing algorithm jointly optimizing underlay and overlay paths using key pre-distribution schemes but not requiring explicit trust of other network nodes.
  • More specifically, the contributions of this paper are:
  • Modeling a network using key pre-distribution schemes with directed and weighted graphs,
  • Proposing a boolean LP problem for optimal overlay routing in the resulting network graph,
  • Analytically reducing the boolean LP problem to a relaxed LP problem and thereby solving the boolean LP in polynomial time, and
  • Evaluating network performance, security, and energy consumption characteristics of the proposed algorithm for both symmetric and asymmetric key pre-distribution methods operating on top of on-demand routing protocols.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We model a network with a weighted directed graph in which all edges and vertices have their own cost.
  • A secure routing algorithm for the modeled graph using a boolean LP problem.
  • Used for secure routing in any network using any key pre-distribution scheme.
  • Experimental results show that our algorithm improves network performance and enhances network security

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

secure-overlay-routing-using-key-pre-distribution

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool : Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database : MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Mohammed Gharib, Student Member, IEEE, Homayoun Yousefi’zadeh, Senior Member, IEEE, and Ali Movaghar, Senior Member, IEEE, “Secure Overlay Routing Using Key Pre-Distribution: A Linear Distance Optimization Approach”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 2016.

EPLQ: Efficient Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Query Over Outsourced Encrypted Data

EPLQ: Efficient Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Query Over Outsourced Encrypted Data

EPLQ: Efficient Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Query Over Outsourced Encrypted Data

ABSTRACT:

With the pervasiveness of smart phones, location based services (LBS) have received considerable attention and become more popular and vital recently. However, the use of LBS also poses a potential threat to user’s location privacy. In this paper, aiming at spatial range query, a popular LBS providing information about points of interest (POIs) within a given distance, we present an efficient and privacy-preserving location-based query solution, called EPLQ. Specifically, to achieve privacy preserving spatial range query, we propose the first predicate-only encryption scheme for inner product range (IPRE), which can be used to detect whether a position is within a given circular area in a privacy-preserving way. To reduce query latency, we further design a privacy-preserving tree index structure in EPLQ. Detailed security analysis confirms the security properties of EPLQ. In addition, extensive experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate that EPLQ is very efficient in privacy preserving spatial range query over outsourced encrypted data. In particular, for a mobile LBS user using an Android phone, around 0.9 s is needed to generate a query, and it also only requires a commodity workstation, which plays the role of the cloud in our experiments, a few seconds to search POIs.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Recently, there are already some solutions for privacy preserving spatial range query.
  • Protecting the privacy of user location in LBS has attracted considerable interest. However, significant challenges still remain in the design of privacy-preserving LBS, and new challenges arise particularly due to data outsourcing. In recent years, there is a growing trend of outsourcing data including LBS data because of its financial and operational benefits.
  • Lying at the intersection of mobile computing and cloud computing, designing privacy-preserving outsourced spatial range query faces the challenges.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Challenge on querying encrypted LBS data. The LBS provider is not willing to disclose its valuable LBS data to the cloud. The LBS provider encrypts and outsources private LBS data to the cloud, and LBS users query the encrypted data in the cloud. As a result, querying encrypted LBS data without privacy breach is a big challenge, and we need to protect not only the user locations from the LBS provider and cloud but also LBS data from the cloud.
  • Challenge on the resource consumption in mobile devices. Many LBS users are mobile users, and their terminals are smart phones with very limited resources. However, the cryptographic or privacy-enhancing techniques used to realize privacy-preserving query usually result in high computational cost and/or storage cost at user side.
  • Challenge on the efficiency of POI searching. Spatial range query is an online service, and LBS users are sensitive to query latency. To provide good user experiences, the POI search performing at the cloud side must be done in a short time (e.g., a few seconds at most). Again, the techniques used to realize privacy-preserving query usually increase the search latency.
  • Challenge on security. LBS data are about POIs in real world. It is reasonable to assume that the attacker may have some knowledge about original LBS data.With such knowledge, known-sample attacks are possible.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, we propose an efficient solution for privacy-preserving spatial range query named EPLQ, which allows queries over encrypted LBS data without disclosing user locations to the cloud or LBS provider.
  • To protect the privacy of user location in EPLQ, we design a novel predicate-only encryption scheme for inner product range (IPRE scheme for short), which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first predicate/predicate-only scheme of this kind. To improve the performance, we also design a privacypreserving index structure named ˆ ss-tree. Specifically, the main contributions of this paper are three folds.
  • We propose IPRE, which allows testing whether the inner product of two vectors is within a given range without disclosing the vectors. In predicate encryption, the key corresponding to a predicate f can decrypt a ciphertext if and only if the attribute of the ciphertext x satisfies the predicate, i.e., f(x) = 1. Predicate-only encryption is a special type of predicate encryption not designed for encrypting/decrypting messages. Instead, it reveals that whether f(x) = 1 or not. Predicate-only encryption schemes supporting different types of predicates have been proposed for privacy-preserving query on outsourced data.
  • We propose EPLQ, an efficient solution for privacy preserving spatial range query. In particular, we show that whether a POI matches a spatial range query or not can be tested by examining whether the inner product of two vectors is in a given range. The two vectors contain the location information of the POI and the query, respectively. Based on this discovery and our IPRE scheme, spatial range query without leaking location information can be achieved. To avoid scanning all POIs to find matched POIs, we further exploit a novel index structure named ˆ ss-tree, which conceals sensitive location information with our IPRE scheme.
  • Our techniques can be used for more kinds of privacypreserving queries over outsourced data. In the spatial range query discussed in this work, we consider Euclidean distance, which is widely used in spatial databases. Our IPRE scheme and ˆ ss-tree may be used for searching records within a given weighted Euclidean distance or great-circle distance as well.Weighted Euclidean distance is used to measure the dissimilarity in many kinds of data, while great-circle distance is the distance of two points on the surface of a sphere.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • To the best of our knowledge, there does not exist predicate/predicate-only scheme supporting inner product range. Though our scheme is used for privacypreserving spatial range query in this paper, it may be applied in other applications as well.
  • Experiments on our implementation demonstrate that our solution is very efficient.
  • Moreover, security analysis shows that EPLQ is secure under known-sample attacks and ciphertext-only attacks.
  • Using great-circle distance instead of Euclidean distance for long distances on the surface of earth is more accurate. By supporting these two kinds of distances, privacy-preserving similarity query and long spatial range query can also be realized.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

eplq-efficient-privacy-preserving-location-based-query

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool : Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database : MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Lichun Li, Rongxing Lu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Cheng Huang, “EPLQ: Efficient Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Query Over Outsourced Encrypted Data”, IEEE INTERNET OF THINGS JOURNAL, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2016.

Spatial Reusability-Aware Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

Spatial Reusability-Aware Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

Spatial Reusability-Aware Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

ABSTRACT:

In the problem of routing in multi-hop wireless networks, to achieve high end-to-end throughput, it is crucial to find the “best” path from the source node to the destination node. Although a large number of routing protocols have been proposed to find the path with minimum total transmission count/time for delivering a single packet, such transmission count/time minimizing protocols cannot be guaranteed to achieve maximum end-to-end throughput. In this paper, we argue that by carefully considering spatial reusability of the wireless communication media, we can tremendously improve the end-to-end throughput in multi-hop wireless networks. To support our argument, we propose spatial reusability-aware single-path routing (SASR) and anypath routing (SAAR) protocols, and compare them with existing single-path routing and anypath routing protocols, respectively. Our evaluation results show that our protocols significantly improve the end-to-end throughput compared with existing protocols. Specifically, for single-path routing, the median throughput gain is up to 60 percent, and for each source-destination pair, the throughput gain is as high as 5:3_; for anypath routing, the maximum per-flow throughput gain is 71.6 percent, while the median gain is up to 13.2 percent.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Most of existing routing protocols, no matter single path routing protocols or any path routing protocols, rely on link-quality aware routing metrics, such as link transmission count-based metrics and link transmission time-based metrics (e.g., ETT and EATT). They simply select the (any) path that minimizes the overall transmission counts or transmission time for delivering a packet.
  • Zhang et al. formulated joint routing and scheduling into an optimization problem, and solved the problem with a column generation method.
  • Pan et al. dealt with the joint problem in cognitive radio networks considering the vacancy of licensed bands.
  • Jones et al. implemented k-tuple network coding and proved throughput optimality of their policy.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • A fundamental problem with existing wireless routing protocols is that minimizing the overall number (or time) of transmissions to deliver a single packet from a source node to a destination node does not necessarily maximize the end-to-end throughput.
  • Most of the existing routing protocols do not take spatial reusability of the wireless communication media into account.
  • They need centralized control to realize MAC-layer scheduling, and to eliminate transmission contention.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, we investigate two kinds of routing protocols, including single-path routing and anypath routing. The task of a single-path routing protocol is to select a cost minimizing path, along which the packets are delivered from the source node to the destination node.
  • In this primer work, we argue that by carefully considering spatial reusability of the wireless communication media, we can tremendously improve the end-to-end throughput in Multihop wireless networks.
  • The algorithms proposed in this work do not require any scheduling, and the SASR algorithms can be implemented in a distributed manner.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to explicitly consider spatial reusability of the wireless communication media in routing, and design practical spatial reusability-aware single-path routing (SASR) and anypath routing (SAAR) protocols.
  • We formulate the problem of spatial reusability aware single-path routing as a binary program, and propose two complementary categories of algorithms for path selection. While one category (SASR-MIN and SASR-FF) tends to exploit the best performance of the paths, the other category (SASR-MAX) evaluates the performance of the paths in the worst case.
  • We further investigate the spectrum spatial reusability in any path routing, and propose SAAR algorithm for participating node selection, cost calculation, and forwarding list determination.
  • We have evaluated SASR algorithms and SAAR algorithm with different data rates.
  • The evaluation results show that our algorithms significantly improve the end-to-end throughput compared with existing ones.
  • Specifically, for single-path routing, a throughput gain up with a median of more than 60 percent is achieved in the case of single-flow, and an average gain of more than 20 percent is achieved with multiple flows; for anypath routing, a median gain of 13:2 percent and the maximum gain up to 71:6 percent can be realized.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

spatial-reusability-aware-routing

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA
  • Tool : Netbeans 7.2.1

 

REFERENCE:

Tong Meng, Student Member, IEEE, Fan Wu, Member, IEEE, Zheng Yang, Member, IEEE, Guihai Chen, Member, IEEE, and Athanasios V. Vasilakos, Senior Member, IEEE, “Spatial Reusability-Aware Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. 65, NO. 1, JANUARY 2016.

Opportunistic Routing With Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Opportunistic Routing With Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Opportunistic Routing With Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

We consider the problem of routing packets across a multi-hop network consisting of multiple sources of traffic and wireless links while ensuring bounded expected delay. Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receiver nodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The main challenge in the design of minimum-delay routing policies is balancing the trade-off between routing the packets along the shortest paths to the destination and distributing the traffic according to the maximum backpressure. Combining important aspects of shortest path and backpressure routing, this paper provides a systematic development of a distributed opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity (D-ORCD). D-ORCD uses a measure of draining time to opportunistically identify and route packets along the paths with an expected low overall congestion. D-ORCD with single destination is proved to ensure a bounded expected delay for all networks and under any admissible traffic, so long as the rate of computations is sufficiently fast relative to traffic statistics. Furthermore, this paper proposes a practical implementation of D-ORCD which empirically optimizes critical algorithm parameters and their effects on delay as well as protocol overhead. Realistic QualNet simulations for 802.11-based networks demonstrate a significant improvement in the average delay over comparable solutions in the literature.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The opportunistic routing schemes can potentially cause severe congestion and unbounded delay. In contrast, it is known that an opportunistic variant of backpressure, diversity backpressure routing (DIVBAR) ensures bounded expected total backlog for all stabilizable arrival rates. To ensure throughput optimality (bounded expected total backlog for all stabilizable arrival rates), backpressure-based algorithms do something very different: rather than using any metric of closeness (or cost) to the destination, they choose the receiver with the largest positive differential backlog (routing responsibility is retained by the transmitter if no such receiver exists).
  • E-DIVBAR is proposed: when choosing the next relay among the set of potential forwarders, E-DIVBAR considers the sum of the differential backlog and the expected hop-count to the destination (also known as ETX).

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The existing property of ignoring the cost to the destination, however, becomes the bane of this approach, leading to poor delay performance in low to moderate traffic.
  • Other existing provably throughput optimal routing policies distribute the traffic locally in a manner similar to DIVBAR and hence, result in large delay.
  • E-DIVBAR does not necessarily result in a better delay performance than DIVBAR.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • The main contribution of this paper is to provide a distributed opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity (D-ORCD) under which, instead of a simple addition used in E-DIVBAR, the congestion information is integrated with the distributed shortest path computations .
  • A comprehensive investigation of the performance of D-ORCD is provided in two directions:
  • We provide detailed simulation study of delay performance of D-ORCD. We also tackle some of the system-level issues observed in realistic settings via detailed simulations.
  • In addition to the simulation studies, we prove that D-ORCD is throughput optimal when there is a single destination (single commodity) and the network operates in stationary regime. While characterizing delay performance is often not analytically tractable, many variants of backpressure algorithm are known to achieve throughput optimality.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We show that D-ORCD exhibits better delay performance than state-of-the-art routing policies with similar complexity, namely, ExOR, DIVBAR, and E-DIVBAR. We also show that the relative performance improvement over existing solutions, in general, depends on the network topology but is often significant in practice, where perfectly symmetric network deployment and traffic conditions are uncommon.
  • We show that a similar analytic guarantee can be obtained regarding the throughput optimality of D-ORCD. In particular, we prove the throughput optimality of D-ORCD by looking at the convergence of D-ORCD to a centralized version of the algorithm. The optimality of the centralized solution is established via a class of Lyapunov functions proposed.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

opportunistic-routing-with-congestion-diversity

MODULES:

  • System Formation
  • Congestion Measure
  • Link Quality Estimation Protocol
  • Opportunistic Routing With Partial Diversity

MODULES DESCSRIPTION:

System Formation

  • In this module, first we develop the System Formation concepts. We consider a network of D nodes labeled by Ω= {1,….,D} . We characterize the behavior of the wireless channel using a probabilistic transmission model. Node is said to be neighbor of node , if there is a positive probability pij that a transmission at node i is received at node . The set of all nodes in the network which are reachable by node is referred to as neighborhood of node.
  • D-ORCD relies on a routing table at each node to determine the next best hop. The routing table at node consists of a list of neighbors and a structure consisting of estimated congestion measure for all neighbors in associated with different destinations.
  • The routing table acts as a storage and decision component at the routing layer. The routing table is updated using a “virtual routing table” at the end of every “computation cycle”: an interval of units of time.
  • To update virtual routing table, during the progression of the computation cycle the nodes exchange and compute the temporary congestion measures.

Congestion Measure

  • In this module, we develop the proposed system by this the system can able to identify the Congestion happened. The Congestion measure values are code and defined in the module.
  • The congestion measure associated with node for a destination at time is the aggregate sum of the local draining time at node and the draining time from its next hop to the destination. D-ORCD computes the expected congestion measure “down the stream”.
  • The implementation of D-ORCD, analogous to any opportunistic routing scheme, involves the selection of a relay node among the candidate set of nodes that have received and acknowledged a packet successfully. One of the major challenges in the implementation of an opportunistic routing algorithm, in general, and D-ORCD in particular, is the design of an 802.11 compatible acknowledgement mechanism at the MAC layer.

Link Quality Estimation Protocol

  • In this module we develop the Link Quality Estimation Protocol for the proposed system model. D-ORCD computations given by (1) utilize link success probabilities pij for each pair of nodes i,j. We now describe a method to determine the probability of successfully receiving a data packet for each pair of nodes.
  • Our method consists of two components: active probing and passive probing.
  • In the active probing, dedicated probe packets are broadcasted periodically to estimate link success probabilities.
  • In passive probing, the overhearing capability of the wireless medium are utilized. The nodes are configured to promiscuous mode, hence enabling them to hear the packets from neighbors. In passive probing, the MAC layer keeps track of the number of packets received from the neighbors including the retransmissions.
  • Finally, a weighted average is used to combine the active and passive estimates to determine the link success probabilities. Passive probing does not introduce any additional overhead cost but can be slow, while active probing rate is set independently of the data rate but introduces costly overhead.

Opportunistic Routing With Partial Diversity

  • In the module, the opportunistic Routing part is implemented and developed in the proposed system model. The three-way handshake procedure achieves opportunism and receiver diversity gain at the cost of an increased feedback overhead. In particular, it is easy to see that this overhead cost, i.e., the total number of ACKs sent per data packet transmission, increases linearly with the size of the set of potential forwarders. Thus, we consider a modification of D-ORCD in the form of opportunistically routing with partial diversity (PD-ORCD).
  • This class of routing policies is parametrized by a parameter denoting the maximum number of forwarder nodes: the maximum number of nodes allowed to send acknowledgment per data packet transmission is constrained to be no more than . Such a constraint will sacrifice the diversity gain, and hence the performance of any opportunistic routing policy, in favor of lowering overhead cost.
  • In order to implement opportunistic routing policies with partial diversity, before the transmission stage occurs, we find the set of “best neighbors” for each node

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool : Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database : MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Abhijeet Bhorkar, Member, IEEE, Mohammad Naghshvar, Member, IEEE, and Tara Javidi, Senior Member, IEEE, “Opportunistic Routing With Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 24, NO. 2, APRIL 2016.

A Stable Approach for Routing Queries in Unstructured P2P Networks

A Stable Approach for Routing Queries in Unstructured P2P Networks

ABSTRACT:

Finding a document or resource in an unstructured peer-to-peer network can be an exceedingly difficult problem. In this paper we propose a query routing approach that accounts for arbitrary overlay topologies, nodes with heterogeneous processing capacity, e.g., reflecting their degree of altruism, and heterogenous class-based likelihoods of query resolution at nodes which may reflect query loads and the manner in which files/resources are distributed across the network. The approach is shown to be stabilize the query load subject to a grade of service constraint, i.e., a guarantee that queries’ routes meet pre-specified class-based bounds on their associated a priori probability of query resolution. An explicit characterization of the capacity region for such systems is given and numerically compared to that associated with random walk based searches. Simulation results further show the performance benefits, in terms of mean delay, of the proposed approach. Additional aspects associated with reducing complexity, estimating parameters, and adaptation to class-based query resolution probabilities and traffic loads are studied.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • In a purely unstructured P2P network, a node only knows its overlay neighbors. With such limited information, search techniques for unstructured networks have mostly been based on limited-scope flooding, simulated random walks, and their variants.
  • Much research in this area has focused on evaluating these search techniques based on the contact time, i.e., number of hops required to find the target, using the spectral theory of Markov chains on (random) graphs, see e.g., Unfortunately in heterogenous settings where service capacity or resolution likelihoods vary across peers, such search techniques perform poorly under high query loads.
  • The inefficiencies of purely unstructured networks can be partially addressed by hybrid P2P systems, e.g., FastTrack and Gnutella2.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • In structured networks the difficulty of search/discovery is shifted to that of maintaining the structural invariants required to achieve efficient
  • In query resolution particularly in dynamic settings with peer/content churn or when reactive load balancing is required.
  • Standard backpressure-based routing our policies suffer from a major drawback: each node needs to share the state of its potentially large number of non-empty queues with its neighbors.
  • Complexity problem will be also raised.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Given a hybrid P2P topology and query classification, we propose a novel query resolution mechanism which stabilizes the system for all query loads within a ‘capacity region’, i.e., the set of loads for which stability is feasible.
  • Essentially, our policy is a biased random walk where forwarding decision for each query is based on instantaneous query loads at super-peers.
  • To balance the load across heterogeneous super-peers, the policy aims at reducing the differential backlog at neighboring super-peers, while taking into account the class and history information to improve the query’s resolvability.
  • Our policy draws upon standard backpressure routing algorithm, which is used to achieve stability in packet switching networks,
  • We propose a query forwarding mechanism for unstructured (hybrid) P2P networks with the following properties.
  • It dynamically accounts for heterogeneity in super-peer’s ‘service rate,’ reflecting their altruism, and query loads across the network. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to rigorously account for such heterogeneity in devising a search mechanism for P2P networks.
  • It is based on classifying queries into classes. This classification serves as a type of name aggregation, which enables nodes to infer the likelihoods of resolving class queries, which, in turn, are used in learning how to forward queries.
  • Our approach is fully distributed in that it involves information sharing only amongst neighbors, and achieves stability subject to a Grade of Service (GoS) constraint on query resolution. The GoS constraint corresponds to guaranteeing that each query class follows a route over which it has a reasonable ‘chance’ of being resolved.
  • We provide and evaluate several interesting variations on our stable mechanism that help significantly improve the delay performance, and further reduce the complexity making it amenable to implementation.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Reducing complexity
  • Estimating parameters, and adaptation to class-based query resolution probabilities and traffic loads are studied.
  • Stable Policies
  • Estimating Query Resolution Probabilities
  • Alternate Grades of Service Strategies
  • It is based on classifying queries into classes
  • The GoS constraint corresponds to guaranteeing that each query class follows a route over which
  • It has a reasonable ‘chance’ of being resolved
  • This provides a basis for substantially reducing complexity by approximations

ALGORITHM

  • Basic Backpressure Algorithm
  • The weights used in above algorithm for each link are different from those used in traditional multi-commodity backpressure algorithm

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • System                           :         Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk                      :         120 GB.
  • Monitor                         :         15’’ LED
  • Input Devices                 :         Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram                               :         1GB.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system                    :         Windows 7.
  • Coding Language           :         JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool                               :         Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database                        :         MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Virag Shah, Gustavo de Veciana, Fellow, IEEE, and George Kesidis, “A Stable Approach for Routing Queries in Unstructured P2P Networks”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2016.

Secure and Efficient data communication protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

Secure and Efficient data communication protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

Secure and Efficient data communication protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

ABSTRACT:

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are expected to play a major role in the field of patient-health monitoring in the near future, which gains tremendous attention amongst researchers in recent years. One of the challenges is to establish a secure communication architecture between sensors and users, whilst addressing the prevalent security and privacy concerns. In this paper, we propose a communication architecture for BANs, and design a scheme to secure the data communications between implanted /wearable sensors and the data sink/data consumers (doctors or nurse) by employing Ciphertext-Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CP ABE) [1] and signature to store the data in ciphertext format at the data sink, hence ensuring data security. Our scheme achieves a role-based access control by employing an access control tree defined by the attributes of the data. We also design two protocols to securely retrieve the sensitive data from a BAN and instruct the sensors in a BAN. We analyze the proposed scheme, and argue that it provides message authenticity and collusion resistance, and is efficient and feasible. We also evaluate its performance in terms of energy consumption and communication/computation overhead.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO:

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • As a sensor that collects patient information, all it cares is to distribute the information to authorized doctors and other experts securely. However, there are challenges everywhere: Data should be transmitted in a secure channel, and we all know the challenges in securing wireless communication channels. Node authentication is the most fundamental step towards a BAN’s initial trust establishment, key generation, and subsequent secure communications.
  • There exist research that enables embedded sensors to establish a session key with each other by leverage physiological signals such as Electrocardiograph (ECG).
  • The most relevant existing research along three lines: (1) securing individual (implantable) devices within a BAN; (2) securing the communications within a BAN; and (3) identity-based cryptography for BANs.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The key-distribution in symmetric encryption is challenging. And symmetric encryption is not a good choice for broadcasting a message because it involves some challenging issues, such as key-management and access control. At the same time, due to the limitation of memory space in sensors, a data sink, which has considerably larger memory and computation power, is employed to store data.
  • Recent research disclosed that smartphones suffer from severe privacy concerns since many applications often cross the line and read sensitive data at their free will (for example, almost all apps read user’s location).
  • A patient’s IPI information may be remotely captured by an ultra-wide-band (UWB) radar device. This leads to a significant security threat as an adversary with a UWB radar can first capture the IPI and then use it to compromise the patient’s health information.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose a novel encryption and signature scheme based on CP ABE in this paper to address the secure communication problem and provide the required security services mentioned above for BANs.
  • A sensor can control the access to the data it has produced by constructing an access structure. For example, by constructing the access structure (fGWU hospitalg AND fVascular Surgery OR Cardiac Surgeryg), the data requires that only doctors or experts in GWU hospital, Vascular Surgery Center or Cardiac Surgery Center can have the access right.
  • Data are stored in ciphertext format at the data sink and the trust we put on the data sink is now drastically decreased as the data sink does not have the key to decrypt the stored ciphertext. However, the scheme belongs to the asymmetric encryption family, which implies a high computational cost. This problem is addressed by using the scheme to encrypt a session key and then the data is encrypted by symmetric encryption based on the session key.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose a framework that enables authorized doctors and experts to access a patient’s private medical information securely.
  • Instead of using software or other mechanism to perform access control, we use encryption and signature method to provide a role-based encrypted access control.
  • The sensor has the ability to control who has access to its data by constructing an access structure for the data.
  • We minimize the trust that people usually put on the data sink by storing the data in ciphertext. The compromise of the data stored at the data sink does not necessarily indicate that the data is compromised.
  • We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of energy consumption and communication/computation overhead.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

secure-and-efficient-data-communication-protocol-for-wireless-body-area-networks

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : NET,C#.NET
  • Tool : Visual Studio 2008
  • Database : SQL SERVER 2005

REFERENCE:

Chunqiang Hu, Student Member, IEEE, Hongjuan Li, Xiuzhen Cheng, Fellow, IEEE, Xiaofeng Liao, Senior Member, IEEE, “Secure and Efficient data communication protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTI-SCALE COMPUTING SYSTEMS, 2016.