PPRank: Economically Selecting Initial Users for Influence Maximization in Social Networks

PPRank: Economically Selecting Initial Users for Influence Maximization in Social Networks

ABSTRACT:

This paper focuses on seeking a new heuristic scheme for an influence maximization problem in social networks: how to economically select a subset of individuals (so-called seeds) to trigger a large cascade of further adoptions of a new behavior based on a contagion process. Most existing works on selection of seeds assumed that the constant number k seeds could be selected, irrespective of the intrinsic property of each individual’s different susceptibility of being influenced (e.g., it may be costly to persuade some seeds to adopt a new behavior). In this paper, a price-performance-ratio inspired heuristic scheme, PPRank, is proposed, which investigates how to economically select seeds within a given budget and meanwhile try to maximize the diffusion process. Our paper’s contributions are threefold. First, we explicitly characterize each user with two distinct factors: the susceptibility of being influenced (SI) and influential power (IP) representing the ability to actively influence others and formulate users’ SIs and IPs according to their social relations, and then, a convex price-demand curve-based model is utilized to properly convert each user’s SI into persuasion cost (PC) representing the cost used to successfullymake the individual adopt a new behavior. Furthermore, a novel cost-effective selection scheme is proposed, which adopts both the price performance ratio (PC-IP ratio) and user’s IP as an integrated selection criterion and meanwhile explicitly takes into account the overlapping effect; finally, simulations using both artificially generated and real-trace network data illustrate that, under the same budgets, PPRank can achieve larger diffusion range than other heuristic and brute-force greedy schemes without taking users’ persuasion costs into account.

PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO: (Click the below link to see the project output video):

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Chen et al. have proposed several influence maximization algorithms in social networks. In particular, based on an independent cascade (IC) diffusion model, a heuristic algorithm called Degree Discount was proposed to alleviate the effect of overlapping, which intentionally discounts the degree of each node by removing the neighbors that are already in seed set. The aforementioned authors extended the Degree Discount algorithm to make it fit the weighted cascade (WC) diffusion model.
  • PRDiscount was proposed to alleviate the “overlapping effect” existing in reverse PageRank-like schemes. Interestingly, greedy-based algorithm and PageRank-inspired heuristic are integrated, which conducted the greedy algorithm on a small set of nodes, consisting of the top nodes ranked by PageRank algorithm on social networks.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Their running times are still long.
  • All aforementioned works ignore one key aspect of influence propagation that we have usually experienced in real life. That is, users have intrinsically different susceptibility of being persuaded to adopt a specific behavior that system designer advertises.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • This paper proposes a new heuristic algorithm, PPRank, for economically selecting seeds to maximize influence. In detail, our main contributions are threefold.
  • First, we explicitly characterize each user with two distinct factors: susceptibility of being influenced (SI) and influential power (IP), and formulate users’ SIs and IPs according to their social relationships.
  • Second, we argue that each user’s SI is an implicit measurement of persuasion cost (PC): Qualitatively the less a user’s SI is, the more cost would be used to persuade the user. Therefore, inspired by the properties of price-demand function in economic field, our paper properly converts individual’s SI into PC, and then, a novel seed selection algorithm is proposed, which utilizes both the price-performance ratio (PC-IP ratio) and IP as an integrated selection criterion, and explicitly takes into account the overlapping effect.
  • Finally, simulations using real social network data traces and artificially generated network graphs illustrate that, under the same budget constraints, our scheme, PPRank, can achieve better performance than other heuristic and greedybased schemes, in terms of maximal diffusion range.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Our paper deeply investigates how to economically select seeds, within a specific marketing budget, so as to trigger a large cascade of further adoptions based on contagion process.
  • In our paper, we utilize WC diffusion model for the problem of influence maximization
  • Unlike the aforementioned works, our paper investigates how to select the initial seeds from cost-effective viewpoint and designs a new heuristic scheme.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool :         Netbeans 7.2.1
  • Database : MYSQL

REFERENCE:

Yufeng Wang, Athanasios V. Vasilakos, Qun Jin, and Jianhua Ma, “PPRank: Economically Selecting Initial Users for Influence Maximization in Social Networks”, IEEE SYSTEMS JOURNAL, 2017.

A Cooperative Clustering Protocol With Duty Cycling for Energy Harvesting Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks

A Cooperative Clustering Protocol With Duty Cycling for Energy Harvesting Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

This paper proposes a cooperative clustering protocol based on the low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) approach to enhance the longevity of energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN). In the proposed protocol, to ensure that any energy consumption associated with the role of the cluster head (CH) is shared between the nodes, the CH role is alternated between the nodes using duty cycling as a function of their individual energy harvesting capabilities. Furthermore, to maintain an energy neutral operation when not acting as a CH, the nodes adopt a data transmission duty cycle and any excess energy is invested in relaying other nodes’ packets. To optimize the relaying performance, a novel crosslayer cooperative TDMA scheme is also presented. The optimal number of clusters in an EH-WSN is analyzed in terms of energy consumption, latency and bandwidth utilization. Simulations, performed using GreenCastalia, demonstrate tangible performance enhancements in adopting the proposed protocol over benchmark schemes in terms of throughput and lifetime, particularly under highly constrained energy conditions.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

     Existing system, develop a low complexity cooperative diversity protocol for low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) based wireless sensor networks. A cross layer approach is used to obtain spatial diversity in the physical layer. In this paper, a simple modification in clustering algorithm of the LEACH protocol is proposed to exploit virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) based user cooperation. In lieu of selecting a single cluster-head at network layer, we proposed M cluster-heads in each cluster to obtain a diversity order of M in long distance communication. Due to the broadcast nature of wireless transmission, cluster-heads are able to receive data from sensor nodes at the same time. This fact ensures the synchronization required to implement a virtual MIMO based space time block code (STBC) in cluster-head to sink node transmission. An analytical method to evaluate the energy consumption based on BER curve is presented. Analysis and simulation results show that proposed cooperative LEACH protocol can save a huge amount of energy over LEACH protocol with same data rate, bit error rate, delay and bandwidth requirements. Moreover, this proposal can achieve higher order diversity with improved spectral efficiency compared to other virtual MIMO based protocols.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Losses in data collection
  • More energy consumption.
  • Decrease network lifetime

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

           In this paper, clustering, duty cycling and cooperative transmission are combined into a novel cross-layer design for EH-WSNs. The new protocol named Energy-Harvesting and Cooperative LEACH (ECO-LEACH), modifies the LEACH technique by replacing its probabilistic CH selection process with a duty cycle based one to efficiently regulate the frequency at which a node undertakes the CH role. Besides the inherent duty cycling used by the TDMA scheduler in LEACH, another duty cycle is adopted here, by which the cluster members can skip certain allocated timeslots to main-tain an ENO state. Moreover, each node follows another duty cycle to select the TDMA frames in which it is available to act as a relay. To complete the protocol, a novel cooperative TDMA scheme is proposed whereby a time-slot is split into two sub-slots. All potential relays listen to the active node’s transmission in the first sub-slot then the best relay transmits the received packet to the destination in the second sub-slot. The selection of the above duty cycles accounts for the node’s energy harvesting rate, packet arrival rate and the optimal percentage of CHs in the network. Hence, a rigorous analysis of the optimal CH percentage (OCHP) is given, which unlike in the case of LEACH, may not necessarily minimize the network energy consumption. Instead, the optimal percentage is the one that minimizes the latency while simultaneously achieves the ENO state and bandwidth requirements.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Reduce the energy consumption
  • Decrease losses in data collection
  • Increase network lifetime.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Mohammed S. Bahbahani and Emad Alsusa School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, “A Cooperative Clustering Protocol With Duty Cycling for Energy Harvesting Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2017.

Safety-aware Location Privacy in VANET: Evaluation and Comparison

Safety-aware Location Privacy in VANET: Evaluation and Comparison

ABSTRACT:

VANET safety applications broadcast cooperative awareness messages (CAM) periodically to provide vehicles with continuous updates about the surrounding traffic. The periodicity and the spatiotemporal information contained in these messages allow a global adversary to track vehicle movements. Many privacy schemes have been proposed for VANET, but only few schemes consider their impact on safety applications. Also, each scheme is evaluated using inconsistent metrics and unrealistic vehicle traces, which makes comparing the actual performance of different schemes in the wild more difficult. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap and compare different privacy schemes not only in terms of the privacy gained but also their impact on safety applications. A distortion-based privacy metric is initially proposed and compared with other popular privacy metrics showing its effectiveness in measuring privacy. A practical safety metric which is based on Monte Carlo analysis is then proposed to measure the QoS of two safety applications: forward collision warning and lane change warning. Using realistic vehicle traces, six state-of-the-art VANET privacy schemes are evaluated and compared in terms of the proposed privacy and safety metrics. Among the evaluated schemes, it was found that the coordinated silent period scheme achieves the best privacy and QoS levels but fully synchronized silence among all vehicles is a practical challenge. The CAPS and CADS schemes provide a practical compromise between privacy and safety since they employ only the necessary silence periods to prevent tracking and avoid changing pseudonyms in trivial situations.

OUTPUT VIDEO:

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Sampigethaya et al. apply silent periods in VANETs when vehicles are merging or changing lanes when joining or leaving a freeway.
  • Freudiger et al. introduce cryptographic mix zones (CMIX) which allow vehicles to obtain a symmetric key from the Road-Side Unit (RSU) that controls the mix zone and to use it to encrypt all messages while they drive within the zone. Keys are also forwarded upon request to vehicles outside the range of the RSU to allow them decrypt received messages from vehicles within the zone.
  • Butty´an et al. propose ceasing sending messages when the vehicle speed becomes low, for example at intersections. The idea behind choosing low speed events is that fatal accidents are less likely to occur at low speed, and places like intersections are natural mix areas where many vehicles are in close proximity. Wei and Chen propose obfuscating position, speed and heading of vehicle within the radius of the safe distance calculated by a safety analysis algorithm. They also propose changing the length of the silent period based on the distance from other vehicles.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Although there are several privacy schemes that prevent the continuous tracking of CAMs, only a few consider their impact on safety applications.
  • These schemes usually reduce the quality or frequency of the exchanged information and may hinder the functionality of safety applications.
  • Changing pseudonyms without these unobserved mix-contexts cannot prevent vehicle tracking

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, we consider those issues by 1) proposing privacy and QoS metrics and 2) comparing state-of-the-art privacy schemes consistently using realistic vehicle traces. On the one hand, location privacy is quantified by measuring how accurately an adversary can reconstruct vehicle traces from the collected CAMs. For this purpose, our vehicle tracker, which is based on a multi-target tracking algorithm, is employed to act as a global adversary.
  • The reconstructed traces by the tracker are then compared with the original vehicle traces to calculate the distortion which expresses on the privacy level. The more distorted the reconstructed traces, the greater is the privacy gained by the driver.
  • On the other hand, the QoS of safety applications is evaluated by estimating the probability of calculating the fundamental requirements of a safety application using CAMs altered by a privacy scheme

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Propose a distortion-based privacy metric and compare it with other popular privacy metrics such as anonymity set size, entropy and traceability.
  • Extend our previously-proposed QoS metric, which facilitates evaluating the impact of privacy schemes on VANET safety applications.
  • Compare six popular privacy schemes in terms of their privacy and safety levels against a robust global adversary using realistic vehicle traces.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Karim Emara Member, IEEE, “Safety-aware Location Privacy in VANET: Evaluation and Comparison”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, 2017.

DIVERT: A Distributed Vehicular Traffic Re-routing System for Congestion Avoidance

DIVERT: A Distributed Vehicular TrafficRe-routing System for Congestion Avoidance

ABSTRACT:

Centralized solutions for vehicular traffic re-routing to alleviate congestion suffer from two intrinsic problems: scalability,as the central server has to perform intensive computation and communication with the vehicles in real-time; and privacy,as the drivers have to share their location as well as the origins and destinations of their trips with the server. This article proposes DIVERT, a distributed vehicular re-routing system for congestion avoidance. DIVERT offloads a large part of the rerouting computation at the vehicles, and thus, the re-routing process becomes practical in real-time. To take collaborative rerouting decisions, the vehicles exchange messages over vehicular ad hoc networks. DIVERT is a hybrid system because it still uses a server and Internet communication to determine an accurate global view of the traffic. In addition, DIVERT balances the user privacy with the re-routing effectiveness. The simulation results demonstrate that, compared with a centralized system,the proposed hybrid system increases the user privacy by 92% on average. In terms of average travel time, DIVERT’s performance is slightly less than that of the centralized system, but it still achieves substantial gains compared to the no re-routing case.In addition, DIVERT reduces the CPU and network load on the server by 99.99% and 95%, respectively.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The centralized system collects real-time traffic data from vehicles and potentially road-side sensors, and it implements several re-routing strategies to assign a new route to each re-routed vehicle based on actual travel time in the road network. Rather than using simple shortest path algorithms(e.g, Dijkstra), the re-routing strategies use load balancing heuristics to compute the new path for a given vehicle to mitigate the potential congestion and to lower the average travel time for all vehicles. This individualized path is pushed to a driver when signs of congestion are observed on his current path.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The centralserver has to perform intensive computation (to re-assign vehicles to new paths) and communication with the vehicles(to send the paths and to receive location updates) in realtime.This can make centralized solutions infeasible for largeregions with many vehicles.
  • Second, in a centralized architecture,the server requires the real-time locations as well asthe origins and destinations of the vehicles to estimate thetraffic conditions and provide effective individual re-routingguidance. This leads to major privacy concerns for the driversand may prevent the adoption of such solutions due to “bigbrother” fears.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • This paper proposes DIVERT,a distributed vehicular re-routing system for congestion avoidance,which leverages both cellular Internet and VANETcommunication. DIVERT is a hybrid system because it stilluses a server, reachable over the Internet, to determine anaccurate global view of the traffic.
  • The centralized serveracts as a coordinator that collects location reports, detectstraffic congestion and distributes re-routing notifications (i.e.,updated travel times in the road network) to the vehicles.However, the system offloads a large part of the re-routingcomputation at the vehicles and thus the re-routing processbecomes practical in real-time.
  • To take collaborative re-routingdecisions, the vehicles situated in the same region exchangemessages over VANETs. Also, DIVERT implements a privacyenhancement protocol to protect the users’ privacy, whereeach vehicle detects the road density locally using VANETand anonymously reports data with a certain probability onlyfrom high traffic density roads.
  • When signs of congestion are detected, the server sends the traffic map only to the vehiclesthat sent the latest updates. Subsequently, these vehiclesdisseminate the traffic data received from the server in theirregion. User privacy is greatly improved since this protocolreduces dramatically the number of vehicle location updatesto the server and, thus, the driver exposure and identificationrisks. Moreover, in this hybrid architecture, the server does notknow the OD pairs of the users.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • A scalable system architecture for distributed rerouting
  • Distributed re-routing algorithms that use VANETsto cooperatively compute an individual alternative path foreach vehicle that takes into account the surrounding vehicles’future paths.
  • Privacy-aware re-routing that significantlydecreases sensitive location data exposure of the vehicles
  • Optimizations to reduce the VANET overhead and thusimprove vehicle-to-vehicle communication latency.
  • The experimental results show that, incomparison with the centralized system, DIVERT can decreasethe privacy exposure by 92% in addition to not revealingthe OD pairs of the user trips.
  • DIVERT is more scalablesince it offloads most of the computation burden to the vehiclesand reduces the network load on the server by 95%.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System :         Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Juan (Susan) Pan, Iulian Sandu Popa, and Cristian Borcea, “DIVERT: A Distributed Vehicular Traffic Re-routing System for Congestion Avoidance”, IEEETransactions on Mobile Computing, 2017.

EcoTrec—A Novel VANET-Based Approach to Reducing Vehicle Emissions

EcoTrec—A Novel VANET-Based Approach to Reducing Vehicle Emissions

ABSTRACT:

There are interdependent increases in vehicle numbers, vehicular traffic congestion, and carbon emissions that cause major problems worldwide. These problems include direct negative influences on people’s health, adverse economic effects, negative social impacts, local environmental damage, and risk of catastrophic global climate change. There is a drastic need to develop ways to reduce these emissions and EcoTrec, presented in this paper, is one of these innovative approaches. EcoTrec is a vehicular ad hoc network-based vehicle routing solution designed to reduce vehicle carbon emissions without significantly affecting the travel times of vehicles. The vehicles exchange messages related to traffic and road conditions, such as average speed on the road, road gradient, and surface condition. This information is used to build a fuel efficiency model of the routes, based on which the vehicles are recommended to take more efficient routes. By routing vehicles more efficiently, the greenhouse emissions are reduced while also maintaining low traffic congestion levels. This paper presents results of extensive simulations, which show how EcoTrec outperforms other state-of-the-art solutions with different number of vehicles, vehicle penetration, and compliance rates, and when considering different real world road maps from Dublin and Koln.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Existing scheme considered receiving information on traffic over FM radio and inspected existing flaws in navigation systems and ways of addressing them. The paper discussed issues such as gullibility errors where the driver follows the automotive navigation’s directions even when they do not make sense. Also it noted that drivers do not always follow the advice of the navigation system.
  • The paper suggests giving the driver a number of choices and indicating the advantages of each choice. This is a good idea as machines are not always capable of judging the advantages of some concepts and different users will have different preferences, e.g. some drivers may not like driving a certain roads.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Traffic congestion also causes a lot of time-related stress for people who waste time in traffic.
  • RSUs are a very expensive wayto improve connectivity, using the store and carry approach isslow for messages to reach all the vehicles and increasing thetransmission power will improve the connectivity slightly onlyand scaling is very limited.
  • An obvious limitation is that DNA does notconsider road length over road speed in order to get the timevehicles take to traverse a road segment.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • This paper presented EcoTrec, a traffic and road characteristic aware VANET-based routing solution for reducing carbon emissions.The EcoTrec architecture, whose major components are a Vehicle Model, a Road Model and a Traffic Model.
  • The vehicle model is built and updated by each individual vehicle, using information from the GPS sensors, speedometer and accelerometer. The vehicle’s local traffic conditions are used to create and maintain the Traffic Model. The Road Model is maintained at a central Server and is updated with information on the nearby roads. The data is exchanged using IEEE 802.11p.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Simulation-based testing compared the proposed solutionwith different penetration and compliance rates against realvehicular traffic data from cities of Dublin and Koln, and algorithmsproposed by Dijkstra and Sommer. In terms of the percentageof vehicles which reached their destinations, EcoTrecoutperformed the real-life situation and Sommer algorithm by15% and 17% respectively, and was very similar in performanceto applying the Dijkstra shortest path solution.
  • In terms of emissions, EcoTrec outperformed the real-lifecase, Dijkstra and Sommer algorithms by 21%, 19%, and 12%,respectively.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Ronan Doolan and Gabriel-Miro Muntean,Member, IEEE “EcoTrec—A Novel VANET-Based Approach to Reducing Vehicle Emissions”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 2017.

 

Enhancing Quality of Service Conditions Using a Cross-Layer Paradigm for Ad-hoc Vehicular Communication

Enhancing Quality of Service Conditions Using a Cross-Layer Paradigm for Ad-hoc Vehicular Communication

ABSTRACT:

The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an emerging paradigm aiming to introduce a plethora of innovative applications and services that imposea certain quality of service requirements. The IoV mainly relies on vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) for autonomous inter-vehicle communication and road-traffic safety management. With the ever-increasing demand to design new and emerging applications for VANETs, one challenge that continues to stand out is the provision of acceptable Quality of Service (QoS) requirements to particular user applications. Most existing solutions to this challenge rely on a single layer of the protocol stack. This paper presents a cross-layer decision-based routing protocol that necessitates to choose the best multi-hop path for packet delivery to meet acceptable QoS requirements. The proposed protocol acquires the information about the channel rate from the physical layer and incorporates this information in decision making while directing traffic at the network layer level. Key performance metrics for the system design are analyzed using extensive experimental simulation scenarios. In addition, three data rate variant solutions are proposed to cater for various application-specific requirements in highways and urban environments.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

Existing works presented a cross-layered architecture for cooperative VANETs. This architecture makes routing decisions on the basis of link capacity while adjusting the connectivity probability at the MAC layer. In the context of VANETs, Existing works have designed a video dissemination routing protocol under dynamic road traffic conditions in an urban environment. The proposed routing protocol uses the rate control mechanism to control the dissemination of information as per data traffic, thereby minimizing channel overloading.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Existing solutions rely on a single layer of the protocol stack.
  • Existing routing decisions decreases the systemperformance in terms of packet drop ratio.
  • Low packet delivery ratio.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • The design of a Cross Layer Decision Based Routing Protocol CLDBRP is proposed in this paper, which links the channel rate information from the PHY-MAC layer to establish correct routing decisions within the network. In a conventional OSI-layered architecture, individual layers use their own set of variables.
  • Conversely, a cross-layered approach utilises the bottom-up method, where the upper layers are optimized accordingly after considering parameters from the lower layers. On the basis of the WAVE protocol stack, the OSI layer model is sub-divided into three main sub-layers, namely PHY-MAC, Network and Application. The communication range is calculated by considering PHY-MAC layer parameters such as SINR, channel rate and channel dynamics at the network layer.
  • The major variable at PHY layer that can be utilized at the upper layers is the data rate (throughput) information. Data rate is dependent on signal strength, i.e., available bandwidth, SINR, transmit/receive power and wireless channel dynamics with respect to time. An overall efficient system can be designed by varying the routing parameters consistent with the PHY-MAC layer variables.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • High packet delivery ratio.
  • Low packet delay.
  • Less packet drop ratio.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Sabih ur Rehman, Member, IEEE, M.Arif Khan, Member, IEEE, Muhammad Imran, Member, IEEE,Tanveer A Zia, Member, IEEE, and Mohsin Iftikhar, Member, IEEE, “Enhancing Quality of Service Conditions Using aCross-Layer Paradigm for Ad-hoc VehicularCommunication”, IEEE SYSTEMS JOURNAL,2017.

MoZo: A Moving Zone Based Routing Protocol Using Pure V2V Communication in VANETs

MoZo: A Moving Zone Based Routing Protocol Using Pure V2V Communication in VANETs

ABSTRACT:

Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are an emerging field, whereby vehicle-to-vehicle communications can enable many new applications such as safety and entertainment services. Most VANET applications are enabled by different routing protocols. The design of such routing protocols, however, is quite challenging due to the dynamic nature of nodes (vehicles) in VANETs. To exploit the unique characteristics of VANET nodes, we design a moving-zone based architecture in which vehicles collaborate with one another to form dynamic moving zones so as to facilitate information dissemination. We propose a novel approach that introduces moving object modeling and indexing techniques from the theory of large moving object databases into the design of VANET routing protocols. The results of extensive simulation studies carried out on real road maps demonstrate the superiority of our approach compared with both clustering and non-clustering based routing protocols.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The CBDRP (Clustering-Based Directional Routing Protocol) first divides each road into equal-length segments. Vehicles in the same road segment and moving at the same direction are grouped in one cluster, and the vehicle closest to the center of the cluster is the cluster head.
  • To route a message, the source sends the message to its cluster head, and the cluster head establishes the routing path first and then forwards the message along the path. The BRAVE (Beacon-less Routing Algorithm for Vehicular Environments) approach adopts an optimistic routing approach to reduce the message overhead in traditional broadcasting approaches.
  • In BRAVE, a forwarding vehicle which has a message to send out will broadcast the message to its 1-hop neighbors.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The clustersare formed based on fixed partitioning of roads, withoutconsidering the similarity of movement among vehicles.
  • Incurs heavy communication overhead.
  • The broken path problem is more severewhen the distance between the sender and the receiver is farfrom each other.
  • Introduces extra communication cost but also delays the transmission of messages.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose a comprehensive routing solution that delivers messages in VANETs via a self-organized moving-zone based architecture formed using pure vehicle-to-vehicle communication.Our approach integrates moving object modeling and indexing techniques to vehicle management.
  • Moving object techniques allow us to provide a realistic cluster-based representation, in that vehicles are grouped together according to their actual moving patterns. Further, the use of indexes allow for efficient movement information storage and management.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • This isthe first study that applies moving object techniques tovehicular networks. The moving object modeling and indexing techniques have been leveraged in various tasksincluding zone construction and maintenance as well asinformation dissemination.
  • The proposed approach greatlyreduces communication overhead and improves messagedelivery rate.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Dan Lin, Jian Kang, Anna Squicciarini, Yingjie Wu, Sashi Gurung, and Ozan Tonguz, “MoZo: A Moving Zone Based Routing ProtocolUsing Pure V2V Communication in VANETs”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2017.

Trustworthiness Evaluation-based Routing Protocol for Incompletely Predictable Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

Trustworthiness Evaluation-based RoutingProtocol for Incompletely PredictableVehicular Ad hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Incompletely predictable vehicular ad hoc networks is a type of networks where vehicles move in a certain range or just in a particular tendency, which is very similar to some circumstances in reality. However, how to route in such type of networks more efficiently according to the node motion characteristics and related historical big data is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol named trustworthiness evaluation-based routing protocol (TERP). In our protocol, trustworthiness of each individual is calculated by the cloud depending on the attribute parameters uploaded by the corresponding vehicle. In addition,according to the trustworthiness provided by the cloud, vehicles in the network choose reliable forward nodes and complete the entire route. The analysis shows that our protocol can effectively improve the fairness of the trustworthiness judgement. In the simulation, our protocol has a good performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio, normalized routing overhead and average end-to-end delay.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • After having an appropriate algorithm to compute the vehicle trustworthiness, a robust center for big data collection, analysis and trustworthiness distribution is also demanded. As is well known, the most important features of cloud computing are distributed computing and mass storage.
  • Applying the features of cloud computing into practice,researchers have proposed many outstanding schemes and protocols in their own fields. It is a good choice to use the cloud to collect, store and analyze attribute parameters to provide the trustworthiness of any vehicle to the nodes querying for the vehicle’s trustworthiness

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Although many protocols have been proposed for vehicle networks,some open issues, such as network feature utilization and trustworthiness evaluation, etc., have not yet been resolved.
  • From one side, relationships among different timestamps and positions in the same vehicle are not fully used as the important information for routing search.
  • In traditional routing protocols, routing situations at each moment are usually considered separately. However, the continuity of vehicle movement in time is ignored.
  • On the other side,there is no way to completely avoid the current trustworthiness mechanism from providing false or unfair trustworthiness value.
  • In a trusted scheme or mechanism, its own trustworthiness value is mainly given by the node itself, or decided by team members

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • In this paper, we proposed a trustworthiness evaluation based routing protocol (TERP). The trustworthiness of every vehicle is taken into consideration, which is obtained through the attribute parameters of the vehicle and is provided by the cloud. The cloud is used in order to host the vast amount of historical big data related to vehicle activities, on which the trust evaluation is based.
  • The cloud server acts as a trusted third part to provide fair trustworthiness evaluation. This avoids problems caused by different criteria for the evaluation of vehicle trustworthiness. At the same time, the cloud server can also reduce the calculation and storage overhead of each vehicle terminal.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • A balanced node utilization ratio is defined
  • A fair trustworthiness evaluation is proposed
  • A method for value re-excavation from knowninformation is presented.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Jian Shen, Member, IEEE, Chen Wang, Aniello Castiglione, Member, IEEE Dengzhi Liu and Christian Esposito, Member, IEEE, “Trustworthiness Evaluation-based Routing Protocol for Incompletely Predictable Vehicular Ad hoc Networks”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIG DATA,2017.

Distributed Aggregate Privacy-PreservingAuthentication in VANETs

Distributed Aggregate Privacy-Preserving Authentication in VANETs

ABSTRACT:

Existing secure and privacy-preserving vehicular communication protocols in vehicular ad hoc networks face the challenges of being fast and not depending on ideal tamper-proof devices (TPDs) embedded in vehicles. To address these challenges, we propose a vehicular authentication protocol referred to as distributedaggregate privacy-preserving authentication. The pro-posed protocol is based on our new multiple trusted authority one-time identity-based aggregate signature technique. With this technique a vehicle can verify many messages simultaneously and their signatures can be compressed into a single one that greatly reduces the storage space needed by a vehicle or a data collector (e.g., the traffic management authority). Instead of ideal TPDs, our protocol only requires realistic TPDs and hence is more practical.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • The existing protocol named APPA, is built on a one-time identity-based aggregate signature (OTIBAS) and the multiplicative secret sharing (MSS) technique, and, also requires the master secret (shares) of TA to be stored in a TPD.
  • MSS is used to achieve leakage resiliency, i.e., the scheme remains secure in the presence of bounded information leakage of the master secret stored in the TPDs. Yet, a leakage-resilient scheme cannot withstand an obstinate attacker who continually places the TPD under a long-term side-channel attack.
  • In fact, this attack strategy is attractive and practical for criminals, since, once the master secret is extracted, they can fully control the entire VANET.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Suffer from time-consuming cryptographic operations.
  • Huge volume of cryptographic data.
  • Costly certificate/pseudonym management and/orreliance on ideal TPDs.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose an efficient distributed aggregate privacy-preserving authentication (DAPPA) protocol for secure vehicular communications.The proposed protocol is based on our new multiple trusted authority one-time identity-based aggregate signature technique.
  • An MTA-OTIBAS scheme consists of a root TA, several lower-level TAs and users. Each lower-level TA is enrolled by the root TA. A user can register to any lower-level TA and compute a signature on a message if the user has obtained a private key from the lower-level TA. The signature is only valid under the user’s identity and the public information of the lower-level TA.
  • An MTA-OTIBAS scheme has the following features. Firstly, each user’s public key is his identity, which avoids certificate management. Secondly, a signer’s private key, associated with an identity and a lower-level TA, is restricted to be used only once and will be updated after each use. Thirdly, the MTA-OTIBAS scheme allows numerous signatures to be aggregated into a single one for fast verification and storage saving.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Reduces the storage space needed by a vehicle or a data collector.
  • With this technique a vehicle can verify many messages simultaneously.
  • Our protocol only requires realistic TPDs.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Lei Zhang,Member, IEEE, Qianhong Wu, Member, IEEE, Josep Domingo-Ferrer,Fellow, IEEE,Bo Qin, and Chuanyan Hu “Distributed Aggregate Privacy-PreservingAuthentication in VANETs”.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 2017.

 

EAAP: Efficient Anonymous Authentication With Conditional Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

EAAP: Efficient Anonymous Authentication With Conditional Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Providing an efficient anonymous authentication scheme in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) with low computational cost is a challenging issue. Even though, there are some existing schemes to provide anonymous authentication, the existing schemes suffer from high computational cost in the certificate and the signature verification process, which leads to high message loss. Therefore, they fail to meet the necessity of verifying hundreds of messages per second in VANETs. In our scheme, we propose an efficient anonymous authentication scheme to avoid malicious vehicles entering into the VANET. In addition, the proposed scheme offers a conditional tracking mechanism to trace the vehicles or roadside units that abuse the VANET. As a result, our scheme revokes the privacy of misbehaving vehicles to provide conditional privacy in a computationally efficient way through which the VANET entities will be anonymous to each other until they are revoked from the VANET system. Moreover, the proposed scheme is implemented and the performance analysis shows that our scheme iscomputationally efficient with respect to the certificate and the signature verification process by keeping conditional privacy in VANETs.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Existing systems proposed the Group signature Based (GSB) scheme based on the use of group signature technique. In this scheme, the vehicle’s OBUs are not required to store a large number of anonymous keys and the TA can efficiently trace the targeted vehicle in the case of misbehaving. However, in this scheme, the vehicles are required to store the revocation list to avoid the communication with revoked vehicles.
  • There-fore, for a large scale network, verification process grows linearly with the increment of number of revoked vehicles on the revocation list. Hence, each vehicle needs to spend more time and it is not feasible when the revocation list in large. Gamage et al. proposed an ID based ring signature scheme in order to fulfill the privacy requirement of a signer in VANET applications.

DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

  • Computationally higher cost authentication scheme for both vehicles and RSUs is proposed.
  • Certificate and signature verificationcost for providing efficient data integrity is higher.
  • High packet loss ratio between RSU and Vehicles.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • We propose an efficient anonymous authentication scheme with conditional privacy preserving (EAAP) for VANETs. The EAAP is designed based on the following four security requirements: 1) the privacy offered by the TA to the vehicles in the VANET system is a conditional privacy. 2) The construction of EAAP scheme is based on bilinear pairing. 3) In this EAAP scheme, the TA does not require to store the anonymous certificates of vehicles and RSUs.
  • Instead, the vehicles and RSUs can generate their anonymous certificates on their own to protect their privacy. 4) In the event of any conflict, the TA has the ability to successfully revoke the anonymity of a misbehaving vehicle to disclose its real identity. Then the revoked identity is placed in the identity revocation list (IRL) which is maintained by the TA.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

  • Provides the anonymous authentication.
  • Low certificate and signatureverification cost
  • Provide an efficient conditionalprivacy tracking mechanism to reveal the real identity of themalicious vehicle.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)

REFERENCE:

Maria Azees, Pandi Vijayakumar, and Lazarus Jegatha Deboarh “EAAP: Efficient Anonymous Authentication With Conditional Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 2017.